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Authors Alterations, changes other than corrections, made by a client after the proofing process has begun. AAs are usually charged to a client as billable time.

absolute leading
The fixed amount of space between lines of text, generally measured in points.

The capacity a paper has for accepting liquids, like the inks or water used to run offset lithographic presses. see also ink absorption,ink holdout.

Acid-free paper
Paper manufactured on a paper machine with the wet-end chemistry controlled to a neutral or slightly alkaline pH. see also alkaline papermaking, archival, permanence, pH, wet end .

Acrobat: is part of a set of applications developed by Adobe to create and view PDF files. Acrobat is used to create the PDF files, and the freeware Acrobat Reader is used to read the PDF files.

Actual weight
The true weight of any volume of paper. The actual weight of paper is used to determine both purchase price and shipping costs. see also basic size, basis weight, weight.

Ingredients of paper other than pulp. Additives include clay fillers, dyes, sizing, and other chemicals. see also clay, ingredients of paper, papermaking, sizing.

Adobe Acrobat:
Suite of applications to create and view PDF files.

A jagged look of an image or type that happens when the resolution is inadequate or when images have been increased. The square pixels that make up the image are then visable to the naked eye. See also jaggies .

Placing images or type to line up with an invisible grid or in relation to one another. This can be done vertically or horizontally. Text can be aligned to the left, right, center or justified .

Alkaline Papermaking
The manufacture of paper under alkaline conditions using additives, caustic fillers like calcium cand neutral size. Alkaline paperis usally used where aging resistance is desired. It's the logical choice for documents, books, and maps. All of Champion uncoated premium papers are made with an alkaline process, so they're long-lasting and well-suited for permanent record applications. see also acid-free paper, archival paper, calcuim carbonate, lignin, papermaking, permanence, pH, sizing.

The space between columns within a page. Not to be confused with the gutter, which is the combination of the inside margins of two facing pages.

Alpha channel
A special 8-bit grayscale channel that is used for saving a selection.

Part of the image source tag in HTML. A good web designer will always include text in all of your image sources for two reasons: (1) if any of your visitors choose not to view graphic images on your web pages, the alternative text will be shown; and (2) if your visitors use Internet Explorer as their browser and they leave the mouse over any graphic image, they will view the text in your ALT-attribute.

Also called hydrated aluminum sulfate or papermaker's alum. A papermaking chemical that's typically used when adding rosin size to pulp, alum imparts water-resistant properties to paper. In practical terms, it keeps paper from clinging to the presses, see also rosin, sizing.

The character "&" that is used to depict the word "and".

Animated GIF
A feature of the GIF89a (Graphics Interchange Format) file format containing two or more images that simulates motion/animation when viewed in a browser. The motion/animation can repeat continuously or play only once.

Animation is the creating a timed sequence or series of graphic images or frames together to give the appearance of continuous movement.

Smoothing or blending the transition of pixels in an image. Anti-aliasing the edges on a graphic image makes the edges appear smooth, not jagged.

Aqueous Coating
A water-based caoting applied after printing, either while the paper is still on press ("in line"), or after it's off press. An aque- ous coating usually gives a gloss, dull, or matte finish, and helps prevent the underlying ink from rubbing off. Unlike a UV coat- ing or a varnish, an aqueous coating will accept ink-jet printing, making it a natural choice for jobs that require printing addresses for mass mailings. see also coated paper, finishing, UV coating, varnish.

Archival Paper
Paper that's alkaline and won't deteriorate over time. Archival papers must meet national standards for permanence: they must be acid-free and alkaline with a pH of 7.5 to 8.5; include 2% calcium carbonate as an alkaline reserve; and not contain any groundwood or unbleached wook fiber. The expected life of archival paper is more than 100 years. see also acid-free, alkaline papermaking, permanence, pH.

Art Director
The individual responsible for overseeing the creative and production process and managing other creative individuals.

In typography, the parts of lowercase letters that rise above the x-height of the font, e.g. b, d, f, h, k, I, and t.

ASP (Active Server Page)
A dynamically generated web page, generally using ActiveX scripting. When a browser or a search engine spider requests an ASP page from a server, the server generates the web page with HTML code and gives it to the browser or spider.

In Graphic Design, a line on a graph or grid used to show the position of a point. The plural of axis is axes.


The area of an image or website that the principal objects or foreground sits.

Backing Up
Paper that's alkaline and won't deteriorate over time. Archival papers must meet national standards for permanence: they must be acid-free and alkaline with a pH of 7.5 to 8.5; include 2% calcium carbonate as an alkaline reserve; and not contain anyu ground wood or unbleached wook fiber. The expected life of archival paper is more than 100 years. see also acid-free, alkaline papermaking, permanence, pH.

An abnormality occuring in gradations causing a stair-stepped appearance. Introducing noise to a gradient will help to reduce banding.

The measure of the speed of information or data as it flows between two points along a communications pipeline. Usually measured in bits per second or bps.

A banner is a graphic image (static, animated , or rich media ) that is placed on web sites as an advertisement. Banners are commonly used for brand awareness and generating sales.

the title of a periodical, which appears on the cover of the magazine and on the first page of the newsletter. It contains the name of the publication and serial information, date, volume, number .

An imaginary line determined by the flat base of a lowercase letter such as " m ". The baseline establishes the base of a block of text. All upper and lowercase letters rest on this imaginary line.

baseline shift
Applying this attribute to a character of type moves it up or down from the baseline.

Basic Size
the customary sheet size used to establish the basis weight of a ream (500 sheets) of a given grade of paper. Standard basic sizes vary by paper grade. For example, the basic size of book paper is 25"x38", while the basic size of cover stock is 20"x26". see also basis weight, weight.

Basis Weight
the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard (basic size). Each major paper grade, like cover, bond, or offset, has its own basic sheet size, which determines its basis weight. For example, the basic size of book paper is 25"x38" for 500 sheets; therefore, 500 sheets of 70lb. offset book paper in 25"x38" will actually weigh 70 pounds. see also basic size, ream weight, weight.

Adding a beveled effect to a graphic image gives the image a raised appearance by applying highlight colors and shadow colors to the inside and outside edges.

Bézier curve A type of curved line between two points (called control points). The curved line is defined by a mathematical formula and is used primarily in drawing programs such as Adobe Illustrator and Macromedia Freehand.

fastening papers together for easy reading, transport, and pro- textion. Papers may be bound together with a variety of materi- als, like wire, thread, glue, and plastic combs. types of binding see also finishing, folding, imposition, scoring, signature. "

A bitmap is a graphic file that is made up of square dots (pixels). Scaling these images to larger sizes result in these pixels becoming larger which can make the image look blocky with jagged edges.

Bitmap graphic
A graphic imange which is composed of a pattern of dots. The individual dots are stored as data on a computer. An example of an animation that is a bitmap graphic is a GIF animation .

Bitmap Image (bmp)
A graphic image stored as a specific arrangement of screen dots, or pixels. Web graphics are bitmap images. A graphic which is defined by specifying the colors of dots or pixels which make up the picture. Also known as raster graphics. Common types of bitmap graphics are GIF , JPEG , Photoshop, PCX, TIFF, Macintosh Paint, Microsoft Paint, PNG , FAX formats, and TGA.

Bit-mapped (mode)
the Paint graphics mode describes an image made of pixels where the pixel is either on (black) or off (white).

Black (font)
a font that has more weight than the bold version of a typeface.

a method of coating paper and paperboard using a flexible blade to control the amount of coating applied to the paper. The coating is made of pigments, additives, and adhesives. Blade-coating can take place either on the papermaking machine or on an off-machine coater. While paper may be coated on one side (C1S) or both sides (C2S), blade-coated paper are usually calendared. This helps create a compressed sheet with a glossy surface, reduced bulk, and enhanced printed properties. see also bulk, calendering, clay, coated paper.

see impression cylinder, offset.

Bleach Filtrate Recycling (BFR) process
Champion's groundbreaking new patented process that recycles precess wastes from the bleach plant instead of discharging them to the waste water treatment facility. This technology uses Champion's 0D100 bleaching process, and is being demonstrated at Champion's Canton, Norht Carolina mill. see also elemental chlorine free (ECF), OD100 process.

a chemical treatment used to whiten and purify pulp. Bleached pulp is known for being strong and durable. see also celemtal chlorine free (ECF), OD100 precess, papermaking, pulp. "Bleed an image or printed color that runs off the trimmed edge of a page. Bleeding one or more edges of a printed page generally increases both the amount of paper needed and the overall production cost of a printed job. Bleeds are created by trimming the page after printing.

Blind Embossing
stamping raised letters or images into paper using pressure and a die, but without using foil or ink to add color to the raised areas. Braille is an example of blind embossing. see also elemental chlorine free (ECF), OD100 process.

Block quote
a long quotation -- four or more lines -- within body text, that is set apart in order to clearly distinguish the author's words from the words that the author is quoting.

A blue photographic proof, made from actual printing plates, used to check positioning of images and text before a piece goes to print.

A computer graphics format "Bitmap IBM format" not generally used in professional printing.

Body type
roman -- normal, plain, or book -- type used for long passages of text, such a stories in a newsletter, magazine, or chapters in a book. Generally sized from 9 point to 14 point.

Bond Paper
a type of office reprographic paper, widely used for letterheads and business forms. Bond papers are characterized by strenght, durability, and performance during electronic printing. They are manufactured with a basic size of 17"x22". see also basic size, electronic printing, office reprographic paper, xerography.

Bonding Strength
the internal strength of a paper; the ability of the fibers within a paper to hold to one another. Bonding strength measures the ability of the paper to hold together on the printing press. Good bonding strength prevents fibers from coming loose ("picking"). see also picking, pick out, sizing.

Book Paper
a type of offset paper with a basic size of 25"x38". The primary applications for these products are book publishing, commercial printing, direct mail, technical documents, and manuals. see also basic size, offset papers, text papers.

Just as a paper bookmark is used as a reminder of the page you are on in a book, electronic bookmarks are used to bring you back to a web site or other site you may want to return to. The Netscape browser lets you bookmark any site and save the bookmarks in a file you can recall at any time. Microsoft Internet Explorer uses the term "favorite" instead of bookmark for the same concept.

the reflectivity of pulp, paper, or paperboard under test condi- tions, using a specially calibrated measuring instrument. If paper lacks brightness it will absorb too much light, so little will reflect back through the ink. see also fluorescent dye, refractiviness, whiteness.

Bristol Paper
solid or laminated heavyweight paper made to a caliper thick- ness of .006" or higher. Bristols are generally used for tags, covers, and file folders and have a basic size of 24.5"x30.5". see also basic size, cover paper, tag paper.

The software used to view, manage, and access web pages by interpreting hypertext and hyperlinks. The two most common browsers are Netscape and Microsoft Internet Explorer. Web pages often appear differently depending on the brand and version of the browser intended to view them in.

the thickness of a stack of paper, technically measured as the thickness of a specified number of sheets under a specified pressure. For example, using the measurement of an inch, it may take less that 100 bulky bristol sheets to make an inch- deep pile. On the other hand, it might take hundreds of sheets to make an inch of a lower-bulk text paper. Where thickness or the illusion of substance is a desired effect, bulk is a key factor. see also caliper, thickness

A dot at the beginning of a line or phrase used to get attention.

To expose photo sensitive media to light. i.e. Burning a negative or Burning a printing plate. Also, to "doge and burn" a photo print (makes the image darker in an area that is burned, ads detail to lightly exposed areas)

in newsletter/magazine layout, a credit line for the author of an article.

paper that is coated on one side only (coated one side). An example of a C1S sheet is Champion All-Purpose Litho.

paper that is coated on both sides (coated two sides).

Calcium Carbonte
CaCO3, a naturally occurring substance found in a variety of sources, including chalk, limestone, marble, oyster shells, and scale from boiled hard water. Used as a filler in the alkaline paper manufacturing process, calcium carbonate improves several important paper characteristics, like smoothness, brightness, opacity, and affinity for ink; it also reduces paper acidity. It is a key ingredient in today's paper coatings. see also alkaline papermaking, ingredients of paper.

the process of finishing a sheet of dried paper by pressing it between the highly polished metal cylinders of a calenar "stack". The calendar smoothes the paper by compression. see also finish, papermaking, smoothness, supercalendering.

the thinkness of a single sheet of paper, as measured with a sensitive tool called a micrometer, and expressed in units of thousandths of an inch. Caliper is a critical measure of uniformity. Excessive variation in caliper can lead to print variation, undesirable visual effects, and uneven stretch or press-feeding problems. It can also create problems in folding and binding. see also bulk, thickness.

an explanatory label for an illustration, often drawn with a leader line pointing to a part of the illustration.

camera ready
Artwork that is completed and ready for photographic/digital conversion to film/plates for commercial printing.

Camera-ready copy
final publication material that is ready to be made into a negative for a printing plate. May be a computer file or actual print and images on a board.

Cap height
in typography, the distance from the baseline to the top of the capital letters.

A short explanation or description normally positoned below a photo or image.

Case Binding see binding.

case sensitive
Terminology used to indicate that inputing upper or lowercase characters into a field are significant.

Cast Shadow
A cast shadow is similar to a drop shadow with added emphasis on perspective. Cast shadows can be rotated, stretched, and skewed to create a realistic 3D effect.

paper produced with a surface that is a reasonably accurate replication of some other surface. To manufacture cast-coated paper, a paper web with wet or moistened coating is brought into contact with a polished chrome drum surface, which is replicated in the coated sheet. There are two basic cast-coating technologies: the "wet process", invented and developed by Champion in 1937; and the "re-wet" process. Both methods remain in use to produce the world's out- put of cast-coated products. The advantage of the "wet process," used to manufacture Champion Kromekote, is that the sheet is both smooth and absorbent, not just smooth, allowing for excel- lent ink transfer with minimal pressure. Cast-coated papers allow inks to set and dry quickly, making wet trapping easier and mini- mizing dot gain. In general, cast-coated papers uniquely combine a superior flat surface with excellent ink receptivity, making them the best of printing surfaces, regardless of the type of printing process. see also coated-paper, dot gain, finish, smoothness, wet trap.

Cellulose Fiber the main component of the walls of all plant cells, cellulose gives plants their structural support and makes plant material fibrous. Both cotton and wook fibers are mostly made up of cellulose. see also fiber, ingredients of paper, paper, pulping wood.

center spread
The two facing pages appearing in the center of a publication.

any letter, figure, punctuation, symbol or space

Chemical Pulping
manufacturing pulp by pressure-cooking wook or other raw fibrous material into its component parts with solutions of various chemical liquors. The predominant chemical pulping process is the sulfate (kraft) process. see also kraft, papermaking, pulping wood.

Choke (Choking)
When trapping color closing in an area that has another color inside so the choked color overlaps, also spreading.

A color proofing system, usually the final color proof before going on the press. This is a high quality proof and all corrections and alterations should be made prior to this.

a naturally occuring substance commonly used in the paper industry. Clay is used as both a filler and a coating ingredient. By adding clay, papermakers can improve a paper's smooth- ness, brightness, opacity, and affinity for ink. see also additives, coated paper, filler, ingredients of paper, opacity.

Clip art
ready-made artwork sold or distributed for clipping and pasting into publications. Available in hard-copy books, and in electronic form, as files on disk.

Stands for the colors C yan- M agenta- Y ellow-Blac k . In print design, colors are defined as a percentage of each of these 4 colors. For example, the CMYK abbreviation for the color black would be 0-0-0-100. In contrast, display devices (i.e. computer monitors) typically define colors using RGB.

Coated Paper
paper with an outer layer of coating applied to one of both sides. The coating may be added while the paper is still moving through the papermaking machine, or after it comes off the machine. Coated papers are available in a variety of finishes, like gloss, dull, and matte. They tend to have good ink holdout and minimal dot gain, which can be especially important for recreat- ing sharp, bright images, black and white halftones, and four-color process images. The smooth surface of coated papers also helps to reflect light evenly. see also cast-coating, clay, dot gain, dull coated, four-color process gloss, halftone, ink holdout, matte coated, off-machine coating.

Color Cast
A color cast changes the hue (color) of a selected part of an image while keeping the saturation and brightness intact. Viewing an image with a color cast can be similar to viewing it through colored lenses on eyeglasses. A commonly known color cast (in graphic design) is a duotone.

Color Key
A printer's proof usually used for viewing the individual layers of C,M,Y & K, four sheets of colored acetate, for examining the quality of process color separations.

Color Separation
Literally separating the areas of a piece to be printed into its component spot and process ink colors. Each color to be printed must have its own printing plate. Usually referred to in a photographic sense a color separation of a photo done either digitally or traditionaly on a scanner.

Color spacing
the addition of spaces to congested areas of words or word spacing to achieve a more pleasing appearance after the line has been set normally.

Colorcurve System
a color matching system based on light reflectance curves rather than on ink formulations. It is intended to coordinate colors across a variety of surfacesa and materials and to reduce metamerism. see also match color, metamerism, PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM, Toyo. "
Colorfastness having color that won't run when wet, and won't fade in bright light.

Column gutter
the space between columns of type.

Comp (comprehesive)
a complete but prospective example of a design project, demon- strating size, layout of images and type, use of color, and paper. see also dummy

Composite Image
A photograph or other graphic image, that is made of a combination of multiple images.

Comprehensive layout (comp)
a blueprint of the publication, showing exactly how the type will be set and positioned, and the treatment, sizing, and placement of illustrations on the page.

A method of packing data in order to save disk storage space or download time. JPEGs are generally compressed graphics files. Compression is a technique to make a file or a data stream smaller for faster transmission or to take up less storage space.

Condensed font
a font in which the set-widths of the characters is narrower than in the standard typeface. (Note: not the inter-character space -- that is accomplished through tracking).

continuous tone
Any image containing a virtually unlimited range of tones from the lightest to the darkest.

Continuous Tone
having an unbroken range of intensities, as found in black and white photographs. Continuous tone images have not been screened, and contain gradient tones from black to white. see also halftone, screen, stochastic.

the degree of difference between light and dark areas in an image. Extreme lights and darks give an image high contrast. An image with a wide tonal range has lover contrast.

The process of creating a three dimensional (3D) item from a flat sheet of paper. i.e. envelope conversion / box conversion

A cookie is a message given to a web browser (such as Netscape or Explorer) by a web server. The purpose of cookies is to identify web site users/visitors and possibly prepare customized web pages for them.

generally refers to text -- typewritten pages, word-processing files, typeset galleys or pages -- although sometimes refers to all source materials (text and graphics) used in a publication.

Copy Writer
The individual who writes the written information or "copy" for an advertisement, newsletter, publication or brochure.

the fitting of a variable amount of copy within a specific and fixed amount of space.

Copyright (?)
A group of legal rights granted to the author or creator of written or visual work. All work appearing with the ? symbol or the word "copyright" is protected by its creator or his heirs. For more information, contact your attorney.

Creating copy especially for advertising and promotion.

Cotton Paper
paper with a minimum cotton fiber content of 25%, and a maxi- mum fiber content of 100%. When fiber other than cotton is used, the balance comes from wood pulp. Cotton pulp is made from rags or clippings from textile mills, raw cotton, and cotton linters. Cotton papers are primarily used as writing papers.

in typography, an enclosed area within a letter, in uppercase, lowercase, and numeric letterforms.

Cover Paper
heavier, generally stiffer paper commonly used for book covers, folders, greeting cards, business cards, and brochures. Uncoat- ed cover papers generally match the color and finish of corre- sponding text papers. The basic size of cover stock is 20"x26". see also basic size, text paper.

Creative Standard
term for a banner advertisement; can refer to the design or format of a banner. It can also refer to the process of creating a design.

crop marks
Marks at the corner of an image pointing out where to trim a printed page. Also called trim marks or corner marks.

Trimming an image to fit a given space. Also this technique is used to eliminate unwanted parts of an image.

This involves removing the outside edges of a photograph to remove excessive or irrelevant background content of a photo. This technique is often used to create interesting framing for images. Note that this is not the same as resizing, which keeps the image intact.

Abbreviation for C ascading S tyle S heet, a feature of HTML developed by the W3C. With Cascading Style sheets, both web designers and end users can create style templates (sheet) that specifies how different text elements (paragraphs, headings, hyperlinks , etc.) appear on a web page. Currently, not all browsers express CSS formatting in the same manner.

the waviness of a sheet of paper generally seen along its edges. Curling is generally the result of physical stresses or changes in humidity, and mayoccur at the paper mill, in the pressroom, on press, or after binding. Paper tends to curl along, rather than across, the grain of the paper. Recycled and recycled content papers have less tendency to curl than virgin fiber papers because their fibers are shorter. see also grain, relative humidity.

explanatory text, usually full sentences, that provides information about illustrations. Cutlines are sometimes called captions or legends; not to be confused with title-captions, which are headings for the illustration, or key-legends, which are part of the artwork.

writing or business papers that are cut to a finished size of 8.5"x11", 8.5"x14", or 11"x17". Cut-size papers, like Champion Inkjet, are usually packed in reams of 500 sheets before leaving the mill.

Cylinder Machine
a type of papermaking machine. Wire covered cylinders are rotated through a vat of pulp, and paper is formed as the water drains from the cylinder. Cylinder machines are mostly used for manufacturing paperboard. Multicylinder machines are capable or producing multi-layered paperboard (one layer for each cylinder). see also paperboard, papermaking.

Dandy Roll
a wire mesh cylinder used to smooth the top of paper as it forms. Enhancing both surface smoothness and formation, the dandy roll may also carry a design, which will create a water- mark, identifying the sheet. see also laid finish, papermaking, watermark.

pressing letters or illustrations into a sheet of paper using a metal or plastic die to create a depressed (debossed) image. see also embossing.

Deckle Edge
the feathery edge on a sheet of paper, created as the paper machine sprays a stream of water or a jet of air across the paper as it's being formed. Deckle edges can also be created after the paper is made, using a die. This method creates a less feathery, harder-edged deckle.

Dedicated Line
A dedicated line is a permanent connection to the Internet using an individual, separate phone line.

removing ink and other finishing materials, like coatings, sizings, and adhesives from printed paper. The complex deinking process is what makes recycling paper difficult and ultimately adds to the cost of a recycled sheet of paper. To produce high-quality recycled or recycled content papres for printing and writing, the deinking process needs to be thorough. The goal is to end up with reusable fiber that has few impurities, since impurities lower the quality of a reycyled sheet and can some- times damage equipment in the papermaking and printing process. Modern offset and flexographic ink, photocopier and laser printing "ink," ultraviolet and thermography coatings, and adhesives make it increasingly difficult to deink paper. deinking process see also bleaching, flotation, pulping wood, recycled paper.

an instrument used throughout a print run to measure the optical density of ink on paper.

the weight of a sheet of paper as compared to its bulk. For example, a paper that weighs more than another paper but is thinner has a higher density. Compacting the fibers creates a dense paper. see also bulk, weight.

The part of a lowercase letter that falls below the body (baseline) of the letter. "g", "j", "p", "q" and "y" are all examples of letters with descenders.

Desktop Publishing
A process for creating camera ready and plate ready artwork on a personal computer.

Stands D ynamic H ypertext M ark-up L anguage. DHTML is an HTML extension that allows web pages to react to the end users' input, such as displaying a web page based on the type of browser or computer end users are viewing a page with.

using a formed, meta-edged die to precision cut , or to cut shapes into a piece of paper. If a printing project requires a custom-made die, the total cost of the job will increase.

Digital Imaging
The process of creating a digital output of an illustration, photographic image, computer file or other computer generated materials. Output media can be film, paper, transparencies, vinyl and other materials.

Digital Photography
The process of recording images using a digital camera or a conventional camera with a digital adapter, it records on a disk or on microchip whitch can then be downloaded directly to a computer in tiff, pict or eps format.

Digital Printing
A type of printing which uses digital imaging process that transfers the image directly onto plain paper imediately, without traditional offset rollers and plates.

Dimensional Stability
a measure of paper's tendency to stretch or shrink, especially when affected by changes in moisture content from humidity, the printing process, or even the passage of time. Paper that maintains its original dimensions has a high degree of dimen- sional stability. see also grain, relative humidity, resilience, runnability.

Dingbat typeface
a typeface made up of nonalphabetic marker characters, such as arrows, asterisks, encircled numbers.

direct to plate
Directly exposing image data onto printing plates without using film.
"direct to press Directly transferring image data to printing cylinders in a printing press, eliminating film and printing plates.

A directory (such as Yahoo, commonly mistaken for a search engine ) depends on people for listings. The main difference between a search engine and a directory is that a directory does not make use of a spider or robot. One of the defining characteristics of a directory is that it is usually divided into categories.

Discretionary hyphen
a hyphen that will occur only if the word appears at the end of a line, not if the word appears in the middle of a line.

Dispersion see deinking

Display type
large and/or decorative type used for headlines and as graphic elements in display pieces. Common sizes are 14, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 60, and 72 point.

for digital halftones, the creation of a flat bitmap by simply rutning dots off or on. All dots are the same size there are simply more of them in dark areas and fewer of them in light areas -- as opposed to deep bitmaps used in gray-scale images.

In order to display a full-color graphic image on a 256-color monitor, computers must simulate the colors it cannot display. They do this by dithering which is combining pixels from a 256-color palette into patterns that approximate other colors. At a distance, the human eye merges the pixels into a single color. Up close, the graphic image will appear pixelated and speckled.

This is a process used in making an image (like in a GIF file that has 256 colors or less) appear to have more colors than it really does. This is done by blending pixels using patterns that approximate the colors it is trying to produce. Up close, this dithering looks quite dotty and speckled, but at a normal viewing distance, the effect of more colors and cleaner transitions can be obtained.

Stands for D omain N ame S ystem. The DNS translates URL text addresses (such as into a numeric Internet address (such as

A file created on a computer by software. Known also as a data file .

Doorway Page
Web pages created specifically for search engine positions. Also known as gateway page or a bridge page.

Dot Compensation
adjusting the size of the dots in halftones or four-color images to allow for dot gain and to ensure that the color and detail of the image print as intended. see also dot gain, four-color process, halftone, ink holdout, screen.

Dot Gain
A printing term which describes wet ink coming in contact with paper and spreading as it is transfers. As the halftone dots are applied to the paper, the wet ink spreads, causing the dots to increase in size and halftones to appear darker. Paper weight, type of paper (coated or uncoated), press type (especially web presses), effect the amount of dot gain in a given printed piece. You may compensate for dot gain by calculating the dot gain before a print job and lessen the density of the images to be printed before you output film. See also dot compensation, four-color process, halftone.

Dots Per Inch- (or dpi)
This specifies the resolution of an output device, like a printer or printer press. This print resolution varies depending on what kind of output is required.

double truck
Any two facing pages of a publication where the content traverses the gutter to cover the two center pages of a section. Also known as a truck or double-page spread.

DPI (dot per inch)
the unit of measurement used to describe the resolution of printed output or the number of dots that fit horizontally and vertically into a one- inch measure. Generally, the more dots per inch, the more detail is captured, and the sharper the resulting image. see also halftone, lines per inch, screen.

Drop shadow
Drop shadows are those shadows dropping below text or images which gives the illusion of shadows from lighting and gives a 3D effect to the object.

Drop-Down Menu
In an online form, a drop-down menu (also known as a pull-down menu) looks like the following:

Dry End
the drying section of the papermaking machine, after the press setion, at which point most water has been removed from the paper. As paper moves through the dry end, the drying process is completed and the paper reel is wound. see also drying, felt, papermaking, wet end.

Dry Trap
a layer of wet ink being applied over a previous layer of dry ink in a separate run of the printing press. Dry trapping usually pro- duces sharper images than wet trapping because subsequent layers of ink aren't diluted by prior wet or damp layers. Dry trap- ping is also more expensive because the paper travels through the press more than once. see also trapping, wet trap.

the step in the papermaking process that brings the moisture content of paper to approximately 5%. This is done by moving the web of paper around a series of heated iron drums in the dry end of the paper machine. see also dry end, papermaking.

waterless offset lithography. This printing process is able to use extremely fine line screens to produce high resolution printing. see also offset, waterless printing.

Dull Coated
a coated paper finish that falls between glossy and matte. see also coated paper, gloss, matte coated.

an unprinted mock-up of a book, brochure, or "to-be-printed" piece. A dummy is made of the same paper stocks that will be used in the finished piece, and serves as a reference for the cliet, designer, printer, mailing, house, or distributor. The print- er, paper, merchant, or paper consultant generally provides the dummy at the request of the designer. see also comp, paper consultant.

a two-color halftone of the same imaegs created with two screens, two plates, and two colors. Most halftones are one-color halftones, printed with black ink on white paper. By blending the black of the tiny ink dots and the white of the paper, the human eye sees shades of gray. Duotones are made by printing an image with two colors, generally black and a second color. The full range of tones are printed black and the middle range of tones are printed in the second color. The result is a striking image with more richness and depth that a one-color halftone. The image can be further enhanced by printing a tritone or a quadratone; these are also reproductions of black and white images, perhaps with a touch of color. The cost of printing tritones or quadratones may be as high as or higher than four- color process printing. see also four-color process, halftone, quadratone, screen, tritone.

tiny, free pieces of fiber, filler, and/or coating on paper. During printing, dust may adhere to the blanket and create imperfec- tions by not allowing ink to reach the paper surface. see also hickey, jog.

Egyptian type
originally, from 1815 on, bold face with heavy slabs or square serifs.

a printing process that uses principles of electricity and electrically-charged particles to create images. In photocopiers and laser printers, electric charges create the image on an electrophographic surface that works as a printing plate. This surface is cleared after each image or copy is made, and is used over again for the next copy. see also electronic printing, printing process, xerography.

Electronic Printing
a printing method that creates images using electrostatic charges, rather than by pressing ink onto a plate. Photocopiers and inkjet or laser printers use electronic printing. see also electrophotography, printing methods, xerography.

Electronic Publishing
A new process by which information is distributed in electronic formats. The internet is a prime example of electronic publishing. Also books on CD ROM are considered Electronic publishing.

Any object in a drawing application such as text, a shape, a line, a photo or an image.

Elemental Chlorine Free (ECF)
the more common name for molecular chlorine free, and a bleaching that dosn't use chlorine gas. Champion is a leader in ECF technology, using chlorine dioxide rather than elemental chlorine in the pulp and bleaching processes. see also bleaching, OD100 process, papermaking

Em Space
A lateral space equal to the width of the lower case letter "m". Likewise, En space, is the space of the lower case "n". Used in typography and typesetting.

The width occupied by the capital letter " M " in a normal font. (not a condensed or expanded font)

A process by which a dye is used for raising an area of paper to create letterforms, shapes and textures. The dye can be made of magnesium, which is created from exposing light to the magnesium and leaving only the form of the artwork to be pressed into paper, or brass which is hand done, is more expensive but looks very good with beveled edges and fine detail. see also blind embossing, debossing.

A photosensitive chemical coating used on on photographic film, paper, or glass.

The chemically treated side of photographic film. (The dull side not the shiny side.) Depending on the printing process involved, film will be requested usually as "right reading emulsion down".
en Half the width of an em.

En space
a space half as wide as the type is high (half an em space)

a general term referring to coated paper that has a higher basis weight than coated publication (magazine) paper, but a lower basis weight and caliper than coated cover paper. An example of enamel is Champion Kromekote Enamel. see also C2S, coated paper.

a printing process using intaglio, or recessed plates. Made from steel or copper, engraving plates cost more than plates used in most other printing processes, such as lithography. Ink sits in the recessed wells of the plate while the printing press exerts force on the paper, pushing it into the wells and onto the ink. The pressure creates raised letters and images on the front of the page and indentations on the back. The raised lettering effect of engraving can be simulated using a less costly process, called thermography. see also intaglio, plate, printing process, thermography.

paper that is folded and glued in a wide variety of sizes and shapes, for containing letter of other materials. Many printing jobs will end up in an envelope. The closer a finished piece is to an envelope size, the easier it will be to mail and the less chance it will be damaged by jostling around inside the envelope. An envelope maker can make just about any size envelope needed, but a custom envelope requires a custom die and carries a custom price.

EPS (EPSF) Encapsulated Postscript File
A vector based, computer graphics file format developed by Adobe Systems. EPS is the preferred format for many computer illustrations, because of its efficient use of memory and fine color control. The artwork description is "plotted" by the computer. Example: point "A" has a line that goes to point "B" then continues to point "C", and is filled with a color. (bitmapped artwork atributes a color for every pixel on the computer screen and is not postscript)

Error 404
This error message means Page Not Found (on a server).

Expanded (font):
a font in which the set widths of the characters are wider than in the standard typeface. (Note: not the intercharacter space -- that is accomplished through letterspacing -- but the characters themselves).

The process of saving a graphics file to a format that can be opened in another program. These formats are usually not the native format of the program you are exporting from.

Extended type
typefaces that are wide horizontally -- Hellenic, Latin Wide, Egyptian Expanded, Microgramma Extended, etc.

E-Zine or Ezine
Stands for electronic magazine and is a name for a web site which is either (a) modeled after a print magazine or (b) a magazine that is only available online or through email.

Facing pages
in a double-sided document, the two pages that appear as a spread when the publication is opened.

Stands for Frequently Asked Questions

A progressive fading away of the edge of an image, blending it with the background. Feathering tools are found in image editing programs such as Adobe Photoshop.

to insert small amounts of additional leading between lines, paragraphs, and before and after headings in order to equalize the baselines of columns on a page.

Feathering the edge of a graphic image gradually dissipates the edge, making the edge look blurry.

a fabric of natural or synthetic fibers used in the press section of a papermkaing machine to absorb water from the paper as it is manufactured. see also felt finish, papermaking.

Felt Finish
a soft texture that affects the look but not the strength of an uncoated paper. A felt finish can be created at the wet end during the papermaking process in one of two ways; either with a roll that is covered with a felt, or with a rubber roll with a felt-patterned finish. An embossed felt finish is creat- ed off the machine, after the paper has dried. Champion Carnival Felt is an example of a paper with a felt finish created during the papermaking process. see also felt finish, finish, papermaking, wet end.

Felt Side
the top side of the paper, which comes in contact with the dandy roll and felts during the papermaking process. The bottom side of the paper, which comes in contact with the wire (forming fab- ric) or the papermaking machine, is called the wire side. The felt side of a paper may appear to be softer, while the wire side of a paper may have more "tooth." During printing, the softer texture of the felt side of an uncoated paper may pick up slightly more ink than the wire side of the same sheet, and the printer may have to adjust ink densities to compensate for this. Paper is generally packed and shipped as it is made: felt side up. see also finish, papermaking, tooth, two-sidedness, wire side.

filaments of plant tissue, such as cottom fiber and wood fiber. Some specialty papers may contain synthetic fibers, such as rayon or nylon. see also ingredients of paper.

Fiber-added Paper
paper with visible fibers, flecks, and specks. The term may be a bit misleading because all paper is made from fiber. The most common fiber additives are wood chips, colored cotton fibers, and colored rayon fibers. see also recycled paper, recycled-content paper.

A collection of data stored on a disk. This can be a document, an application or resource. "
file extension An optional addition to the file name as an abbreviated suffix at the end of a filename. (such as photo .eps ) It is used to describe the file type or application that created the file. It is always separated from the filename by a period.

A name given to a particular file.

materials like clay added to pulp before it's formed into paper. Fillers improve a sheet's smoothness, brightness, and affinity for ink. see also clay, ingredients of paper.

A term used in online marketing that describes a web site's ability to be found easily via the search engines , directories , and other online resources.

the surface characteristics of a paper. Finishes may be created on-machine or off-machine. On-machine finishing can be done two ways: for a smooth or vellum finish, pressure is imparted on the sheet with a finishing "stack." Laid of felt finishes are made with a marking roll, which actually presses the pattern into the paper shile it's still wet. Off-machine finishes are called embosses. This is a separate step that presses the paper between a steel pattern roll and either a hard cotton backing roll (to create the finish on both sides), or a plastic roll (for smoothness on one side). Several generic terms describe the various finishes of uncoated paper, such as vellum, smooth, and laid. Individual paper manufacturers may not use these terms consistently, instead unsing unique finishes or unique names for common finishes. see also calendering, embossed, papermaking, supercalender.

preparing printed pages for use. Most printed jobs require one or more finishing steps, such as trimming, folding, or binding. see also binding, folding, trimming.

Vector graphic animation software from Macromedia that allows Flash graphics to look the same across all browsers, as long as the plug-in is installed. One of the advantages of Flash animations is their relatively fast download time.

a direct (not offset) printing method that uses relief plates, similar to rubber stamps, which are made from rubber or photopolymer. The flexible plates are wrapped around a cylinder on the printing press. "Flexo" workds best when printing large areas of solid color, making it popular for printing plastic bags, wrapping paper, and milk cartons. It's also used for the Sunday color comics and newspaper inserts. Rubber manufactures, eager to find new uses for rubber, have invested heavily in flex- ographic research, and improvements have been made in ink coverage and four-color registration. see also four-color process, offset, plate, printing process, registration, relief.

This is a prepress program that reads a disk (or other media) and checks for and identifies missing fonts, embedded graphics, bad traps, and many other potential problems.

a method for removing ink from paper during the deinking process by floating if off the paper. see also deinking.

Fluorescent Dye
a coloring agent added to paper to increase its brightness. Fluorescent dyes give white papers added brilliance in natural light and may add a slight cast like blue or green. see also brightness, refractiveness, whiteness.

A proprietary color matching system for process color.

Foil Stamping
to cover paper with a thin, flexible sheet of metal or other material. The foil, which may be clear or opaque, comes in a range of colors, and is carried on a plastic sheet. Stamping separates the foil from the plastic and makes it adhere to the paper. Foild stamping can be combined with embossing or debossing as an added design element. see also debossing, embossing.

doubling up a sheet of paper so that one part lies on top of another. Folding stresses the paper fibers. To create a smooth, straight fold, heavy papers, like cover stocks and bristols, need to be scored before they're folded. Multiple fold strength is important in printed pieces like books, maps, and pamplets. It's far less important in one-fold opera- tions like greeting cards or envelops, where fold cracking is the vital consideration. Folding strength is negatively affected y the drying heat of various printing and finishing operations. see also binding, finishing, gatefold, imposition, scoring, signature.

a page number, often set with running headers or footers.

A font is a complete set of characters in a particular size and style of type. This includes the letter set, the number set, and all of the special character and diacritical marks you get by pressing the shift, option, or command/control keys. For example, Times NewRoman Bold Italic is one font, and Times NewRoman Bold is another font. Times NewRoman is a single typeface .

the assembled pages and images as printed on a single large sheet, before trimming. With the correct imposition, the pages of a form will be in correct order after folding and trimming. Once folded and trimmed, a form becomes a "signature." see also folding, imposition, signature, trimming.

the uniformity of fibers in a sheet of paper. For example, paper with fine formation has evenly dispersed fibers, and will be smoother and more uniform than a paper with uneven forma- tion. The tighter the fibers are bound, the more uniform the surface, and the better the printed sheet usually looks. see also fiber, grain.

HTML tags that define and label text-entry boxes , check boxes , radio buttons , and/or drop-down menus to create simple on-screen forms for collecting information from the viewer.

Four-color Process
a method that uses dots of magenta (red), cyan (blue), yellow, and black to simulate the continuous tones and variety of colors in a color image. Reproducing a four-color image begins with separating the image into four different halftones by using color filters of the opposite (or negative) color. For instance, a red fil- ter is used to capture the cyan halftone, a blue filter is used to capture the yellow halftone, and a green filter is used to capture the magenta halftone. Because a printing press can't change the tone intensity of ink, four-color process relies on a trick of the eye to mimic light and dark areas. Each halftone separation is printed with its process color (magenta, cyan, yellow, and black). When we look at the final result, our eyes blend the dots to recreate the continuous tones and variety of colors we see in a color photograph, painting, or drawing. see also color separation, continuous tone, dots per inch, halftone, screen subtractive color, touchplate.

a papermaking machine with a horizontal continuous wire belt. A slurry of pulp is poured or sprayed onto the wire (forming fabric); the water is then drained off and pressed out; and the paper is dried. see also papermaking.

In animation , a frame is a single graphic image in a sequence of graphic images.

In HTML, providing the ability to break a web page into multiple, separately scrollable areas. Because some search engines cannot follow links in a framed web site, a good web designer will contain text in a NOFRAMES-tag and provide a link for search engines to index your site.

paper that contains no more than 10% mechanical wood pulp. Most freesheet papers are "free" of mechanical (groundwood) pulp. see also pulping wood, uncoated freesheet, uncoated paper

Software distributed for free on the web.

FTP Stands for F ile T ransfer P rotocol. FTP allows you to copy or send files (HTML-documents, graphic images, spreadsheets) from one computer to another via the Internet.

Fuorescent Inks
printing inks that both emit and reflect light. Generally, these inks are brighter and more opaque than traditional inks. Using one or more fluorescent inks can actually brighten a printed image - especially four-color process printing on uncoated stock. On the down side, fluorescent inks are not colorfast and will fade in bright light and sunlight over time. They can also have a negative effect on dot gain and trapping, making the printing less sharp and without as much detail. see also dot gain, trapping

fully prepared pulp and all its ingredients: fiber, fillers, sizing, and pigments - diluted with water and ready for the papermak- ing machine. Furnish contains about 99% water. see also paper, pulp, slurry.

in traditional publishing, the type set in long columns, not laid out on a page. In desktop publishing, galleys can be printed out using a page-assembly program, for proofreading and copyfitting purposes.

two or more parallel folds on a sheet of paper with the end flaps folding inward. see also folding.

An eight bit (256 colors or shades of grey) or less computer file format by Compuserve. Commonly used to post photographic images to computer bulletin boards and the internet, GIF files are almost never used for professional printing.

the property that's responsible for coated paper's shiny or lustrous appearance; also the measure of a sheet's surface reflectivity. Gloss is often associated with quality: higher qua- lity coated papers exhibit hight gloss. Champion Kromekote is a paper noted and sold for its exceptionally high gloss. see also cast coating, coated paper.

A glow is the opposite of a shadow in that it creates a surrounding highlight of an image. A high radiance creates a soft, subtle glow and a low radiance creates a hard, bright glow, such as a neon glow.

a type or class of paper identified as having the same composi- tion and characteristics. Grade is a generic paper category, such as writing, offset, cover, tag, and index paper. It can also refer to the quality level of the paper; or to a mill's specific brank of paper, such as Champion Carnival, Benefit, or Kromekote.

A smooth progression from one color or tone to another involving two or more colors.

Grain Long
grain running along the length, or long side, of a sheet of paper (23"x35"). Fibers line up parallel to the long side of the paper. This book in your hands is an example of grain-long binding. see also grain, grain short.

Grain Short
grain running along the width, or short side, of a sheet of paper (35"x23"). Fibers line up parallel to the short side of the paper. see also grain, grain long.

the direction in which more fibers lie in a sheet of paper. As paper is formed, the slurry of fibers moves forward on the forming wire at high speeds, aligning the fibers in the direction of the movement and creating the grain. At the same time, the machine shakes the slurry of fibers from side to side, so that the fibers crisscross. This crisscrossing creates a web of fibers, and gives the paper strength in both directions while maintaining a predominant grain, or direction. As the moisture in the air changes, the individual fibers take in moisture and swell sideways, rather than from end to end; this explains why paper will expand or shrink across the grain, and is more flexible along the grain and stiffer against the grain. For books and other bound work, the grain should run parallel with the binding, creating a smoother fold, making the pages easier to turn, and allowing the paper to swell across the grain. If the binding runs across the grain, the free ends of the paper will swell or shrink with moisture changes, but the bound ends will not. The book will buckle and the binding will weaken. With sheet paper, the grain direction is indicated by underscor- ing the dimension along which the grain lies, or by changing the order of the numbers. For example, a 23"x35" sheet is grain long; a grain short sheet is indicated by 25"x35", or 35"x23". On web paper, the grain runs along the length of the paper web. see also binding, formation, grain long, grain short, papermaking, slurry.

weight in grams of a quantity of paper cut to sheets that measure one square meter. see also weight.

A non text item, illustration, photograph or artwork.

Graphic Backgrounds
The bottom-most layer on a web page, usually with either a design or color that highlights the above copy. A small graphic can be tiled to create a background texture for a web page.

Graphic design
Visual representation of an idea or concept. The term is used as a collective name for all activities relating to visual design, including web design, logo design etc.

Graphic Designer
The person who puts Graphic Designs together, many of whom now use computers, drafting and illustration techniques and other tools to create with.

a printing process that uses intaglio, or recessed, image carri- ers. The image carrier, which is flat or cylindrical, moves through an ink pool. A blade scrapes excess ink off the plane of the plate, leaving ink in the recessed wells. A second cylinder presses the paper onto the plates, where it picks up ink from the wells. The high speed of gravure presses and the durability of the metal intaglio plates make gravure an economical printing method suitable for large print runs (more than two million copies). see also intaglio, plate, printing methods

An application of black ink (for print) or the color black (for the screen) that simulates a range of tones. Grayscale images have no hue (color). In print design, a grayscale graphic image appears to be black, white, and shades of gray, but it only uses a single color ink.

Usually nonsense words and letterforms that are not legible, used in a design to aproximate the "color" of a page. Used primarily before final text is available for a client comps.

Greeked text
in page-assembly programs, text that appears as gray bars approximating the lines of type rather than actual characters. This speeds up the amount of time it takes to draw images on the screen.

This is a color mode where there are no colors in use. There is just black, white, and various shades in between. In the print world, a greyscale image is actually made up of just black ink. The value of the grey depends on the density and size of the black dots printed. In photographs, halftones are produced to simulate various shades.

Gripper Edge
the leading edge of paper that moves through a printing press or folding machine. No printing can take place on the outside 3/8" of the paper on the gripper edge. see also gripper.

the row of clips holding the sheet of paper as it speeds through the press. see also gripper edge.

Groove Finish
a textured paper like Champion Carnival Groove, with shallow, parallel furrows or grooves running along the surface. This finish is created by embossing the paper after it comes off the paper- making machine. see also embossing, finishes.

Groundwood Paper
paper that contains between 10 and 75% of groundwood pulp. The groundwood pulping process, also know as mechanical pulping, leaves many natural impurities, like lignin, in the paper. As a result, groundwood paper is less bright and ages faster than freesheet paper, which is made from chemical pulping. Groundwood paper isn't recommended for any printed matter that is expected to last over time. The advantages of ground- wood are that it's lightweight, bulky, and economical. An example of a groundwood paper is Champion Maineweb, manufactured for catalogs and magazines. see also bulk, freesheet, lignin, pulping wood, uncoated groundwood.

(Graphical User Interface) This is a u ser interface based on graphics (icons and pictures and menus) instead of text. When designing a website, it is important to design the GUI effectively.

a machine used to trim stacks of paper, which works like the original French guillotine worked. A cutting blade moves between two upright guides and slices the paper uniformly as it moves downward. see also trimming, trim size.

In double-sided documents, the combination of the inside margins of facing pages; the gutter should be wide enough to accommodate binding.

Hairline rule
Generally the thinnest line likely to print. This is usually .25 of a point.

A process that will reproduce a continous tone image on a press by splitting up the image into a pattern of dots. The dots vary in size, determining tones or shades.

Halftone screen
in traditional publishing, the screen through which a continuous-tone image is photographed, measured in lines per inch. Although digital halftones are not actually photographed through a screen, the term is still used to describe the size of the dots; the larger the dots (fewer lines per inch), the more grainy the image. Special screens can be used for special effects.

Hang indent alignment
type set so that the first line is flush left and subsequent lines are indented.

Hard hyphen
a non breaking hyphen, used when the two parts of the hyphenated word should not be separated. As opposed to a soft (or normal) hyphen, on which the word-wrapping function of a program will break a line.

Hard return
a return created by the Return or Enter key, as opposed to a word-wrap, or soft return, which will adjust according to the character count and column width.

Hardwood Pulp
pulp made from deciduous trees (trees that drop their leaves, such as maple and oak). Hardwood pulp has short fibers, which give paper bulk, body, and smoothness. Papers are often made from a blend of hardwood and softwood pulps, combining the qualities of both into a single paper. see also softwood pulp.

a line or lines of copy set in a larger face than the body copy.

the compartment that holds pulp slurry before it is sprayed or poured onto the paper-forming wire of a papermaking machine. see also papermaking, slurry, wet-end

A proprietary color separation process, developed by Pantone, that uses six (6) instead of four process colors.

A numbering system which uses a base of 16. The first ten digits are 0-9 and the next six are A-F. Hexadecimal numbers are used to color web pages. For example, the hexadecimal equivalent for the color white is #FFFFFF.

an irregularity in the ink coverage of a printed area. Hickeys are caused by paper or pressroom dust, dirt, or pick out on the printing blanket, all of which prevents the ink from adhering to the paper surface. see also dust, picking, pick out

A color model that characterizes colors by h ue, l ightness and s aturation.

A color model that characterizes colors by h ue, s aturation and b rightness.

A color model that characterizes colors by h ue, s aturation and v alue.

Abbreviation for H yper t ext M arkup L anguage; a cross-platform text-formatting system for creating web pages, including copy, images, sounds, frames, animation and more.

The actual color of an object. Hue is measured as a location on a color wheel, expressed in degrees. Hue is also understood as the names of specific colors, like blue, red, yellow, etc.

equipment used to slurry pulp. Water is added to dry pulp and fillers, and agitated until the mixture becomes about the consis- tency of oatmeal cereal. see also papermaking, slurry.

A hyperlink, more commonly called a link, is an electronic connection between one web page to either (1) other web pages on the same web site, or (2) web pages located on another web site. More specifically, a hyperlink is a connection between one page of a hypertext document to another.

Hypertext is any text that can be chosen by a reader and which causes another document to be retrieved and displayed.

Hyphenation zone
For ragged-right text, an arbitrary zone about 1/5 to 1/10 of the length of the line; if a long word is not hyphenated and leaves a gap within that zone, discretionary hyphens are used to fill the line.

An individual who draws or paints images for use in commercial art. Many new tools allow a variety of expressions with traditional media or new computer enhanced illustration techniques.

Image area
the area on a page within which copy is positioned; determined by the margins.
image editor A pixel-based application (such as Adobe Photoshop) used for manipulating scanned or computer generated images.

image map
A website term that refers to an image containing embedded links to urls, images or documents. A link is activated when clicking on the proper area of the image.

A high resolution device that prints directly to plate ready film. Many imagesetters outpur film at 2400 DPI (dots per inch).

also called image assembly; refers to assembling printed matter in a way that results in pages appearing in correct sequence. imposition process see also backing up, folding, form, make-ready, manufacturing order signature.

Impression Cylinder
the cylinder or flat bed of a printing press that holds paper while an inked image from the blanket is pressed upon it. see also offset planographic.

A unit of measurement equal to six (6) picas or seventy two (72) points.

Index Paper
a stiff, inexpensive paper with a smooth finish. The high bulk but low weight of this paper makes it a popular choice for business reply cards. The basic size of index paper is 25.5"x30.5". see also basic size.

Information Page
A static web page that is designed, coded, and written primarily for a target audience but formatted for optimal search engine and directory positioning.

Ingredients of Paper
all the materials used to make the mat of fibers known as paper. The one essential ingredient is cellulose fiber. The rest of the ingredients enhance the paper adding body, reducing cost, or changing color. see also cellulose fiber, clay, filler, furnish, papermaking, pigment pulp, resin, sizing.

a combination of pigment, pigment carrier or vehicle, and additives. Careful ink formulation by the printer can reduce or prevent smudging, unevenness, picking, and additional printing problems associated with ink. The ink used for a particular job depends on the paper specified and the printing process used. see also dry trap, tack, UV ink, vegetable-based ink, wet trap.

Ink Absorption
capacity to accept or absorb ink. see also absorbency, ink holdout.

Ink Holdout
resistance to the penetration of ink. Coated papers tend to have good ink holdout. The ink pigments sit on the surface of the coating, and are not absorbed into the spaces between the paper fibers. This minimizes dot spread and results in a sharp image. Uncoated papers tend to absorb ink into the sheet, but printers can compensate for this and still produce a very bright, sharp image on uncoated paper. see also coated paper, dot compensation, ink absorption.

a method of printing in which an image or letter is cut into the surface of wood or metal, creating tiny wells. Printing ink sits in these wells, and the paper is pressed onto the plate and into the wells, picking up the ink. see also engraving, gravure, printing methods.

This is a web graphic technique used to have an image appear in steps (with a rough image appearing first, and then progressively getting more detail), rather than waiting for the full source image to appear. This is getting less and less used as broadband Internet picks up steam.

Interlaced GIF
A feature of the GIF89a (Graphics Interchange Format) file format that displays images in two passes of alternating lines rather than loading images one line at a time.

The interconnected structure of networks connecting computers around the world.

Interstitial An interstitial is a web advertisement that appears in a separate browser window, other than the target web page.

any slanted or leaning letter designed to complement or be compatible with a companion roman typeface.

An outer covering for a book. The jacket folds around the book, but does not attach to it. Originally created to protect the binding and keep out dust, but now used for more for marketing purposes.

A jagged look of an image or type that happens when the resolution is inadequate or when images have been increased. The square pixels that make up the image are then visable to the naked eye. Also called aliasing .

Java is a programming language, created by Sun Microsystems, which allows small applications to be downloaded into your computer for playback. Java can be used for such simple applications as animation to more complex applications such as a calculator.

Netscape's cross-platform scripting language that provides a more simple method (as opposed to Java) of applying dynamic effects to websites. Microsoft supports a similar language called JScript.

to shake a stack of papers, either on a machine or by hand, so that the edges line up. Printers jog the paper to get rid of any dust or particles, and to ensure proper feeding into the press.

( J oint P hotographic E xperts G roup). This is the main format used on the Internet (and elsewhere) for photographic/continuous toned images. Because the Jpeg format uses compression, you can often obtain much smaller file sizes and still maintain photographic quality. JPEG images allow for more colors than GIF images and are usually smaller in size.

Distributing space between words and letters in lines of text so that the left and right edges are "flush", with the exception of the last line in a paragraph. Also called justified .

This is when text is aligned vertically on the left AND right margins.

In computer terms, stands for K ilobyte. In print design, with CMY K , the K stands for the ink color black.

Represents the color black, a primary printing process color . Black is shown by the letter K which stands for the key plate , a printing plate that helps position and register other colors. kearning

A kilobyte is a storage unit capable of storing 1,024 bytes of information.

kearning pair
Adjusting (increasing or decreasing) the space between adjoining type characters.

kearning value
Two adjoining type characters to which a particular kearning value is applied.

to squeeze together characters, for a better fit of strokes and white space. In display type, characters almost need to be kerned because the white space between characters at large sizes is more noticeable.

This is the process of selectively adjusting the spacing between letters pairs to improve the overall appearance. The letter pairs that most often need some kind of kerning treatment are AV, AY, PA, and AT. These letter pairs often look awkward together, and need to either be moved closer together, or further apart manually.

key letters/numbers
The space between two adjoining type characters. This value is usually measured in em.

key plate
A line drawing that indicates the size, shape and position for elements such as halftones and type.

This is an image placer in layout that represents where an image is to go when it is printed. This placeholder doesn't print, but it fits the position and size of the image that will b e printed in that spot. This Keyline often is a rectangle with an x through it.

a brief phrase or sentence lead-in to a story or chapter; usually set smaller than the headline or chapter title, but larger than text type.

A kilobyte is a storage unit capable of storing 1,024 bytes of information.

A printing term referring to a printing plate (usually the black plate) used as a guide to position and register additional colors. A printing process used to "knockout" an area of the background color by a foreground object that has been masked off. The background area being masked off does not print.

Kraft Paper
a paper manufactured using kraft pulp, usually noted for its strength. In the kraft pulping process, fiber is separated from lignin by cooking wook chips with steam and pressure. see also bleached kraft, lignin, pulping wood.

Laid Finish
a paper with a translucent pattern of lines running both parallel to, and across the grain. Laid finished paper like Champion Mystique is created by dropping a patterned dandy roll onto the paper machine while the paper is still wet. see also dandy roll, finish.

An image or page in a horizontal format, where the width is greater than the height.

The orientation of a document that is to display a page length wise instead of up and down. A brochure will often be a landscape document, where the width is wider than the height.

Lap register
used with knockouts, images of different colors are slightly overlapped, to avoid the appearance of a white line between the two inks.

Laser Compatible
paper that performs on a laser printer or copier. Laser compatible paper has good dimensional stability that keeps it from curling, changing shape, and causing paper jams in printers and copiers. All of the premium writing grades that Champion manufactures are laser compatible. see also dimensional stability, xerography.

The process of positioning text and graphics on a page. Also the design of a page or book. This can include page size, page numbers, type size, typeface and titles.

a line of dots or dashes to lead the eye across the page to separated copy.

Leading (pronounced "led-ding")
The space, measured in points, between the baseline of one line of text to the next baseline of type. (Original name derived from the strips of lead placed between lines of hot type in the early 1900's.)

in typography, the shapes of the characters.

a relief printing method. Printing is done using cast metal type or plates on which the image or printing area are raised above the nonprinting areas. Ink rollers touch only the top surface of the raised areas; the nonprinting areas are lower and do not receive ink. The inked image is transferred directly to the page, resulting in type of images that may actually be depressed or debossed into the paper by the pressure of the press. see also printing methods, relief.

in typography, characters that are bound to each other, such as "oe" and "ae." In professional typefaces, the lowercase "f" is also often set as a ligature in combination with other characters such as "fi" and "fl."

Light (font)
a font that is lighter than the roman (normal, plain, or book) version of the typeface.

the natural, glue-like substance that holds together the cellulose fibers of wood plants. Lignin that is left in pulp causes paper to age and yellow over time. see also acid-free, cellulose fiber, groundwood paper.

paper that has the same appearance and characteristics on both sides (the opposite of two-sided). see also twin-wire machine, two-sidedness.

Line art: black-and-white artwork with no gray areas. Pen-and-ink drawings are line art, and most graphic images produced with desktop publishing graphics programs can be treated as line art. For printing purposes, positive halftones can be handled as line art.

Linen Finish
a paper finish that is similar to the texture of linen fabric, such as Champion Carnival Linen. Linen finishes are embossed after the paper comes off the paper machine. see also embossing, finish.

Lines Per Inch (lpi)
the number of lines in an inch, as found on the screens that create halftones and four-color process images (for example, "printed 175-line screen"). The more lines per inch, the more detailed the printed image will be. With the demand for computer-generated imagery, the term "dots per inch" (which refers to the resolution of the output), is replacing the term "lines per inch." see also dpi, four-color process, halftone, screen .

Text that is categorized, be it bulleted, numbered, or unnumbered. The default list bullets and numbers are black with no special effects. To make a bulleted list using graphic images as bullets, web graphic designers use a table format.

short for lithography or offset lithography.

a printing process using flat surface planographic plates nally stone) that is based on the principle that oil and water don't mix. The image to be lithographed is created on the plate with greasy material that repels water. Water is run over the plate, and the non-image areas absorb it. When the oily ink hits the plate, it's attracted to the similarly greasy image, and repelled by the rest of the wet plate. When paper is pressed onto the plate, it picks up the ink (and a bit of the water). This process is now used primarily for limited-edition prints. see also offset, planographic, plate, printing process.

A symbol, name or design consisting of type and/or artwork, symbolizing a product or an organization's identity.

a symbol, mark, or identifying name.

Lossless Compression
In graphic design, lossless compression refers to a data compression technique where the file quality is preserved and no data is lost. Lossless compression is commonly used on GIF images, but can only reduce file size to about half of its original size. Lossy compression, by contrast, eliminates some data can further decrease file size.

Lossy Compression
A term coined by graphics programmers to refer to a technique of shrinking file sizes by giving away some precision of detail. JPEG is an example of a file that is compressed this way. By reducing the so-called quality of a picture when you save it, you can make the file size smaller. Many photos can take of loss of fine detail before it becomes noticeable on a web page.

A small lens used to examine the quality of printing proofs, film, photographs, transparencies, etc. Some have built in measurements

Low-resolution image
A low-resolution image is a low-detail scan made from, for example a photograph.

L ines P er I nch. When photographs or shades or tints of a color are printed, they're screened. The LPI represents the number of rows of dots per each inch. A greater number produces greater resolution.

From the German word for magnifying glass, a lens used by photographers, printers, and designers to examine details in printed materials.

M weight
the weight in pounds of 1,000 sheets (or two standard 500- sheet reams) or paper. On the label of a paper ream, the M weight is often given after the dimensions of the paper in the ream: for example, 23"x29"-42M. The capital letter M, like the Roman numeral

designates 1,000; the 42 indicates that the 1,000 sheets weigh 42 lbs. see also basis weight, ream weight, weight. "
Machine Coated paper that is coated on the papermaking machine. see also coated paper.

Machine Finish
a paper texture of finish imparted onto the paper white it's still on the papermaking machine. see also felt finish, finish, vellum. "

a capital letter.

all the activities involved in preparing a printing press for a print run, such as setting the registration, balancing the color, and adjusting the plates and blankets for paper thickness. see also imposition, impression cylinder, plate, printing methods, registration.

Making Order
see manufacturing order manufacturing order also know as making order. A quantity of paper manufactured to custom specifications, such as a special weight, color, or size not available as a standard stocking item. Special order require- ments are necessary, and should be discussed with a local paper consultant.

A masthead is a graphic image placed on top of a web page that tells end users what page they are on. Masthead images can contain photos, text, shapes, and/or image maps.

The title of a newspaper, newsletter or publication appearing on the front page. Also called a nameplate.

the credit box, headed by the publication name, that lists sponsors, editors, writers, designers, illustrators, photographers, and others, along with the publication office address, subscription and advertisinginformation, etc.

Match Color
a custom-blended ink that matches a specified color exactly. Match colors are used to print line copy and halftones in one, two, three, or occasionally more colors. The specified colors are chosen from color systems. The most widely used systems are the PATONE MATCHING SYSTEM, Colorcurve, and Toyo. see also Colorcurve, PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM, Toyo.

Match Print
A color proofing system developed by 3M. A high quality proofing system.

Matte Coated
a non-glossy coating on paper, generally used to refer to papers having little or no gloss. A matte coated sheet is often specified when there is a lot of type, since it makes for easier reading. see also coated paper, dull coated, finish, gloss.

(noun) in typography, the length of a line, even if the line is not filled with characters (such as a centered or partial line), designated in picas. When the text is set in columns, the line length is called columnmeasure.

Mechanical Pulping
separating wood fibers for pulp by grinding wood chips mechani- cally, rather than by using a chemical process.

a distributor of papers, often representing several different paper mills or manufacturers.

meta tag
An HTML tag that provides search engines information such as descriptions and keywords pertaining to a specific website.

the tendency of color to change with the light source in which it's viewed. For example, two reds may appear to match under fluorescent light, but clash badly in the light of the sun.

Meta-tags are HTML tags that can be used to identify the creator of a web page, what HTML specifications a web page follows, the keywords and description of the page, etc. The most common use of a meta-tag in online marketing is the keyword and description tags, which tell the search engines that index meta-tags what description to use in their search query results.

for a halftone, a special screen that produces connected, dusty-looking dots.

Mill Broke
paper generated at the paper mill prior to completion of the manufacturing process. Wet mill broke originates at the wet end of the papermaking machine, while dry mill broke comes from the dry end of the papermaking machine. see also dry end, wet end

the physical site where paper is manufactured;refers to a company that manufactures paper. Champion premium papers, for example, are manufactured at the Hamilton, Ohio mill. Champion is also referred to as a mill.

a lowercase letter.

A modem (modulator/demodulator) is the hardware required to connect telephone lines and is essential for dial-up connections to the Internet.

Moderated Discussion List/Newsgroup
The person who categorizes the topics and selects posts is the moderator. Thus, a moderation discussion list or newsgroup is a service in which the moderator organizes participants' comments or suggestions are organized into topics or categories.

moiré (pronounced "mo-ray")
An unwanted pattern occuring in halftone reproduction due to positioning dot screens at the wrong angles or poor registration. Moiré also occurs when scanning an image that has a halftone screen without without using a descreening filter.

Monospaced type
a (typewriter) typeface in which the amount of horizontal space taken up by each character is the same.

A technique used on the Internet where an image changes to another image when the mouse pointer moves over the image. An example of this is a button where it looks like it is being pressed down when you move the mouse pointer over it. Mouseovers can also be used to trigger navigation changes and pop-up windows.

A form of communication combining text with graphics, page layout, video, audio, animation, and so forth.

The title of a newspaper, newsletter or publication appearing on the front page. Also called a masthead .

Neon Glow
Type of glow on a graphic image that gives the appearance of neon lighting.

Nested stories
in newsletter/magazine layout, stories run in multiple columns at different column depths.

Accepted, proper behavior on the Internet. The term especially applies to email and newsgroup posts.

Someone who is new to the web, a newsgroup or e-mail, or any other Internet application. Negative space: in design, the space where the figure isn't -- in artwork, usually the background; in a publication, the parts of the page not occupied by type or graphics.

Newsprint Paper
a grade of paper made primarily from groundwook (mechanical) pulp rather than chemical pulp, resulting in a short lifespan. Newsprint is one of the least expensive printing papers. see also groundwood paper, pulping wood.

A random appearance of pixels on an image to create an effect or decrease definition.

Objected-oriented (mode)
the Draw graphics mode. A set of algorithms describe graphic form in abstract geometrical terms, as object primitives, the most fundamental shapes from which all other shapes are made: lines, curves, and solid or patterned areas.

Oblique type
characters that are slanted to the right; sans serif typefaces often have oblique rather than true italics, which are a separate font.

OD100 Process
a proprietary term used to describe Champion's bleaching tech- nology that combines oxygen delignification and 100% substitu- tion of chlorine dioxide for elemental chlorine. see also bleach filtrate recycling, elemental chlorine free, oxygen delignification.

Office Reprographic
Paper commonly referred to as reprographic paper, includes a variety of business paper grades (both cut-size and copier rolls), like bond, mimeo, duplicator, and reproduction papers. see also bond paper, electronic printing, xerography.

Off-machine Coating
coating paper after it comes off the papermaking machine rather than while it is still on the machine. Off-machine coaters may be used to add a single layer of coating to a paper, or to add a second layer to a paper that has already been machine coated. see also coated paper.

an indirect printing process. Ink is transferred to paper from a blanket that carries an impression from the printing plate, rather than directly from the printing plate itself. Generally, when we say "offset" we mean "offset lithography," even though other printing processes, such as letterpress, may also use this indirect technique. The term offset (or "set off") can also refer to the smudges created when ink from one printed sheet transfers to another. Offset spray is used to prevent this. see also impression cylinder, lithography, planographic, plate, printing processes.

Offset Papers
book and text weight papers that are made to withstand the rigors of offset printing. These papers are more resistant to water and less susceptible to picking. Most book and text grades of paper can be used on offset presses. Often the term "offset" is used synonymously with "book." The basic size of off-set papers is 25"x38". see also basic size, book papers, picking, text paper.

Offset Printing (Offset lithography)
Currently the most common commercial printing method, in which ink is offset from the printing plate to to a second roller then to paper.

If you are connected to the Internet, you are online. Online advertising is done exclusively on the web or through e-mail.

Online Marketing
Online advertising is done exclusively on the web or through e-mail. Various types of online marketing include: affliliate programs search engine optimization banner advertising directory enhancement posts to moderated discussion lists, newsgroups, and forums email advertising online press releases

a measure of how opaque a paper is. The more fibers or fillers a paper has, the more opaque it is, and the less it allows "show- through" of the printing on the back side or on the next page. Opacity isn't always determined by thickness or weight; a thinner paper may have more opacity than a thicker paper if opacifying thickeners are used. see also calcuim carbonate, fillers, thickness, titanium dioxide, weight.

The density of an image, color or tonal value. Also the measure of transparency of type or an image.

An email marketing term in which the email recipient specifically requests receiving email related to a specific topic of interest Outline

in a page layout, the first line of a paragraph separated from the rest of the paragraph by a column or page break. Headings without enough type under them may be considered as orphans; there should be as much type below the heading as the height of the heading itself, including white space.

The outline is the outer edge of text or a graphic.

To print two or more colors in a way so they overlap. This printing technique is used to prevent gaps from turning up between colors or to add a third color.

Oxygen Delignification
a processing step that takes place after pulping and before bleaching. Oxygen is used to remove lignin (delignify) resulting in lower chemical usage in the bleach plant. see also bleaching, lignin, OD100 process.

a platform with a slatted bottom, used to hold and ship cartons of paper stacked on top of each other.

the most widely used system for specifying and blending match colors. The PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM identifies more than 700 colors. It provides designers with swatches for specific colors, and gives printers the recipes for making those colors. PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM was developed by neither a commercial printer nor an ink manufacture, leaving the choice of ink brand up to the printer. see also Colorcurve, match color, Toyo.

a complex matted web of cellulose fibers.

Consultant a representative from a paper mill or merchant who has the expertise to help designers and printers choose just the right paper for a specific job. see also manufacturing order, merchant, specifying paper.

Paper Cut
the excruciating, often unforseeable, and usually invisible-to- the-naked-eye cut received when skin slides along the edge of a piece of paper at just the wrong angle.

paper with a caliper greater than .012 inches, or 12 points. Paperboard is used primarily for packaging and construction materials. Paperboard doesn't need to have the same white- ness and brightness as premium printing and writing papers, and because the process of deinking is less important in its manufacture, it is a perfect product for using recovered fiber.

Affinity the tendency for paper and ink to attract and stay attracted to each other. This keeps the ink on the paper and off the reader's hands or the next sheet. An incompatibility between ink and paper can cause printing problems.

creating a web of fiber from plant cellulose (or, less commonly, from synthetic fbers). Papermakers today follow the same steps that its inventor, Ts'ai Lun, followed almost two thousand years ago: pulping vegetable matter and leaving the cellulose fibers behind; mixing the pulp with lots of water; draining it; forming paper on a sieve-like mold; pressing the paper to remove some of the water; and drying it to remove the rest of the water. Technology has sped up the process and helped to improve the smoothness, brightness, and printability of the paper, but it hasn't changed the essence of papermaking. papermaking process.

an aquatic plant found in northern Africa. Although papyrus is considered to be the first paper, it's not, in the strict definition of the word, paper (which is a matter web of individual fibers). Rather, early papyrus "paper" was made by peeling the plant, which is constructed like an onion, and placing one layer on top of another. The natural juices acted like glue, bonding the layers and leaving the cellular structure of the plant layers intact. see also scrolls

a writing substance made from the skin of animals. Today, parchment-like paper, or vegetable parchment, is made by dip- ping paper quickly into sulfuric acid, then quickly washing it and neutralizing the acid. This melts the fibers on the outside, which in turn coats the other fibers and fills the void between them. The result is a grease resistant sheet that is difficult to recycle.

the process of preparing mechanicals -- in traditional publishing, positioning and pasting type and graphics on a board (and overlays). In desktop publishing, page-assembly software enables the user to do electronic pasteup.

(Portable Document Format) This format developed by Adobe makes it possible to keep the exact fonts, format, and layout of a document across any platform. These files can be created in Adobe Acrobat, or any program that can output to PDF. An Adobe Acrobat Reader is needed to view these files.

Perfect Binding
A book binding process where pages are glued together and directly to the cover of the book. The appearance is of a flat spine on the end of the book such as a paperback book.

Press a printing press that simultaneously prints both sides of a sheet of paper as it passes through the press. On other presses, printing both sides means running the street through the press to print one side, allowing the ink to dry, turning the paper over, and then running the sheet through the press again to print the other side. see also imposition, printing methods.

a paper's ability to resist tears, fading, and general aging over time. The national standard for permanence requires a pH of 7.5-8.5; at least 2% calcium carbonate; and no ground wood or unbleached fiber. The standard also has specific fold endurance and tear resistance requirements. Paper meeting the standard for permanence can be expected to last more than 100 years. Paper with a pH level of 5.5 or higher can be expected to last up to 50 years. see also alkaline papermaking, archival paper, pH

Petroleum-based Ink
an ink using petroleum as the vehicle for carrying the pigment. Ink manufacturers are seeking new vehicles to reduce the need for petroleum-based solvents, which may be toxic at high levels. see also ink, vegetable-based ink

the measeure of the acidity or alkalinity of a material. Paper with a pH below 7.0 is considered acidic; paper with a pH above 7.0 is considered acid-free, or alkaline. see also acid-free paper, alkaline papermaking, archival paper.

Photo CD
A proprietary format developed by Eastman Kodak for storing photographic images on a compact disc. Usually 35mm format. Images can be easily accessed for use in professional printing.

Photo Illustration
An image, primarily consisting of a photograph or composite image containing a photograph.

Photo Plate
A light sensitive printing plate. The plate is developed like film, then used on a printing press.

A mechanical printing process that uses a light sensitive printing element, magnetic toner and a heating element to fuse the toner to the paper.

An image or picture made by exposing light sensitive film with a camera.

Abbreviation for Hypertext Pre-Processor.

Pica is a unit of measure commonly used in graphic design. Six picas equals roughly one inch (precisely, six picas equals .9957 inches). Most graphic design programs round off picas so that six picas exactly equals one inch.

Pick Out
a problem on press caused by unevenly sealed paper, or paper with low bonding strength. The ink "picks" off weak areas of the paper, lifting coating from a coated stock, or lifting fibers from an uncoated stock, and transferring them to the printing blanket. These fibers will eventually be transferred back onto the sheets being printed, causing inking and surface inconsistencies. see also bonding strength, hickey, picking, sizing

Pick Resistance
the ability of paper fibers to hold together during the printing process. see also bonding strength, pick out sizing

a problem generally resulting from using an ink that's too tacky for the paper it's printed on. The ink actually pulls tiny pieces of the paper off the surface of the sheet. Two types of picking are fiber bundles and coating picking. Fiber bundles are caused by weak fiber bond, and coating picking occurs when the adhesive properties of coating binder aren't strong enough to hold up the high tack of the offset printing process. see also bonding strenght, pick out, sizing

a material, such as titanium dioxide, added to pulp before it is formed into paper. White pigments boost brightness and opaci- ty; colored pigments and dyes control the shade or change the color see also fluorescent dye, ingredients of paper, opacity, titanium dioxide

Pixel (picture element)
the smallest unit that a device can address. Most often refers to display monitors, a pixel being the smallest spot of phosphor that can be lit up on the screen.

Pixel Depth
The amount of data used to describe each colored dot on the computer screen. i.e. Monochrome is 1 bit deep. Greyscale is 8 bits deep. RGB is 24 bits deep. Images to be printed as CMYK separation should be 32 bits deep.

a method for printing ink onto paper, where the image sits on the same surface as the printing plate. The image area is greased to attract ink, while the rest of the plate attracts water and repels ink. As the paper is pressed onto the flat surface of the plate, it picks up ink from the greasy image areas and a small bit of water from blank areas. This is the printing process used in lithography and offset lithography. see also lithography, offset, plate, printing methods.

brief for printing plate, generally a thin sheet of metal that carries the printing image. The plate surface is treated or configured so that only the printing image is ink receptive. see also electronic printing, intaglio, letterpress, lithography, offset, planographic, printing methods, relief

Plate Ready Film
Final photographic film used to "burn" printing plates.

A software extension that provides added capabilities to the browser, for purposes such as viewing, hearing, or saving specially formatted files. Most plug-ins are available via the creator's web page for downloading.

PMS (Pantone Matching System)
a standard color-matching system used by printers and graphic designers for inks, papers, and other materials. A PMS color is a standard color defined by percentage mixtures of different primary inks.

PNG Portable Network Graphics format
PNG (usually pronounced "ping"), is used for lossless compression. The PNG format displays images without jagged edges while keeping file sizes relatively small, making them popular on the web. PNG files are however generally larger than GIF files.

in measurements of the thickness of paper, one point is 1/1000 or .001 inches; measurements of the size of type, one point is 1/72 inch. see also caliper, thickness

point size
Measurement used to indicate the size of type.

refers to the openness or compactness of the fibers in a paper, is measured by the ability of air to pass through the sheet. The more open a paper is, the greater its porosity.

The orientation of a document that displays the longest sides of the document vertically. An example of this is an 8.5X11 paper viewed normally.

A post is a single message sent to a newsgroup or message board.

Recovered Paper paper material recovered after being used by a consumer. see also recovered paper, recycled content paper, recycled paper

for a halftone, the reduction of the number of gray scales to produce a high-contrast image.

This is a language used by postscript printers to convert documents so they can be printed.

PostScript Type
A digital font technology based on the Adobe PostScript language. One PostScript file is used for screen display and one for printing.

paper per inch, or the number of sheets in a one-inck stack of paper; used to describe the bulk of a paper. see also bulk, caliper, thickness.

Stands for pixels per inch. PPI specifies the resolution of an input device, such as a scanner, digital camera, or monitor. Web page resolution ranges from 72-96 pixels per inch. (For information on output device measurements see dpi .)

(Points Per Inch) This is the resolution of an input device. Examples include digital cameras, scanners, and monitors.

Precision Sheeting
converting rolls of paper into finished sheet sizes in a single operation.

Recovered Paper paper recovered after the papermaking process, but before use by a consumer. see also recovered paper, recycled content paper, recycled paper

The various printing related services, performed before ink is actually put on the printing press. (i.e. stripping, scanning, color separating, etc. . .)

Press Proof
a test printing of a subject prior to the final production run. Press proofs are generally printed on the paper stock that will be used for the finished project. A few sheets are run as a final check before printing the entire job.

Print Quality
the overall excellence of a printed piece. Paper, ink, press, and the skill of the press operators all affect print quality. see also printability.

how well a paper performs with ink on press. Absorbency, smoothness, ink holdout, and opacity all affect printability. see also absorbency, dimensional stability, ink holdout, opacity, relative humidity

Printer font
high-resolution bitmaps or font outline masters used for the actual laying down of the characters on the printed page, as opposed to display on the screen.

Printing Methods
a means or tool for placing ink on paper. Most printing is done with a plate. The four main types of printing methods are relief, where words or images are raised above the surface of the plate; intaglio, where they are etched through the surface; plano- graphic, on the same plane as the surface; and stencil, or screen printing, cut below the plate surface. Words and images may also be "printed" electronically, using photocopiers and inkjet printers. see also electronic printing, intaglio, letterpress, lithography, offset, planographic, plate, relief, screen printing, stencil, waterless printing, web press

The process of applying images to a variety of surfaces. Some printing processes include: offset lithography, thermography, la gravuer, letterpress, silkscreen, digital, laser, dye sub, photographic.

Process Color
Colors that are made up of the CMYK. By using halftones, you can obtain photographic full color images using just CMYK. Also known as Full Color.

Production Artist (Paste-up Artist)
A skilled laborer who produces finished camera ready or plate ready artwork from the visual elements and instructions provided by the designer or client.

progressive JPEG
A JPEG file format used to display an image progressively in steadily increasing resolutions as data is downloaded in a browser.

Proportionally spaced type
a typeface in which the set width (horizontal space) of characters is variable, depending on the shape of the character itself and the characters surrounding it.

abbreviation for "point." see also point

Pull quote
a brief phrase (not necessarily an actual quotation) from the body text, enlarged and set off from the text with rules, a box, and/or a screen. It is from a part of the text set previously, and is set in the middle of a paragraph, to add emphasis and interest.

a wet slurry of fibers and water that is the basic ingredient of paper. see also cellulose fiber, pulping wood, slurry, wet end

Pulping Wood transforming wood, the raw material of most paper, into pulp. Pulping breaks wood apart, separating the rows of cellulose fibers that are stuck together with lignin. These separated fibers will later create the matted web of fibers we know as paper. Paper may be made with pulp from just one of the following processes, or by mixing mechanical and chemical pulps.

Punctuation block
in right-justified or right-aligned text, several consecutive lines that end with punctuation and make the right margin look uneven.

a black and white image printed with four screens and four colors, such as one or more blacks and different shades of gray, used to enrich the contrast between light and dark ares. see also continuous tone, duotone, halftone, screen, tritone "
quality of an image.

software used by the publishing industry.

A search request submitted to a database (such as the search engine and directory databases) to find a particular piece of information or all records that meet the search criteria. A search query box to the search engine Google generally looks like the following:

Quick Time Video
Quick Time Video is the Apple technology that allows video, digitized sound and music, 3D, and virtual reality to be viewed on your web site. It's available for Macintosh and Windows-based computers.

Radio Button In an online form, radio buttons looks like the following: Would like information on our graphic services? Yes No If you click your mouse on the radio buttons above, you will only be able to select one answer. A radio button is different from a check box , which can accept multiple checked items at a time.

Rag Paper paper with at least 25% and as much as 100% cotton fibers. see also cotton paper

Ragged right alignment: type set so that the extra white space in a line is set at the right, giving the text a ragged margin. Usually set with flush left.

raster An image or graphic defined by pixels. A rasterized image can be very detailed, such as a photograph, but lacks the ability to be resized without loss of quality.

Ream a package containing 500 sheets of printing paper.

Ream Weight the actual weight in pounds of a ream (500 sheets) of paper. see also actual weight, basis weight, weight

Recovered Paper paper tha has been separated, diverted, or removed from the solid waste stream.

Recto: in a double-sided document, the page that appears on the right side of the spread; an even-numbered page.

Recycable, recycled paper, recycled paper recyclable suited for recycling. This term may be misleading. For exam- ple, it may be physically possible to recycle a given material, but if it is too costly to do so, or if a collection process is not in place, recycling may be impossible or economically not feasible.

Recycled Content Paper a paper product containing some, but consisting of less than 100% recovered fiber. Champion Carnival is an example of a recycled content paper. see also deinking, pre-consumer recovered paper, post-consumer recovered paper, recycled content paper

Recycled Paper a paper product consisting of 100% recovered fiber. Recovered fiber includes pre- and/or post-consumer sources. Champion Benefit is an example of a !00% recycle paper. see also deinking, pre-consumer recovered paper, post-consumer recovered paper, recycled content paper

Refining the process of cutting, breaking, and flattening the cellulose fibers in pulp. In order to form a strong, flexible paper, pulp fibers need to be flattened and frayed. The refiner has metal discs that can be adjusted to create longer or shorter fibers. see also hydropulper, papermaking

Refractiveness a measure of how much a sheet of paper deflects the light that hits it. The more light a sheet deflects, the greater its refractive- ness, allowing a printed image to be more brilliant and detailed. see also brightness, whiteness

Registration The process of alignment of the different elements in a printing job. Such as the different colored inks on a print job, so they are correctly printed next to each other or over each other . (i.e. If the inks can be seen to overlap improperly or to leave white gaps on the page, the printing is said to be "out of registration" or "poorly registered".)

Relative Humidity
balance the relative humidity of the pressroom compared to the relative humidity of the paper to be printed. Relative humidity is a mea- sure of how much moisture air or paper can hold versus how much it is actually holding at a given temperature. Before print- ing a job, the printer must "cure" the paper by letting it sit, wrapped, in the pressroom for a determined amount of time. This will bring the paper to the same temperature and humidity as the pressroom, helping to prevent several printing problems. For instance, ink on cold paper takes longer to dry than ink on room-temperature paper. Ink on dry paper may "chalk" if the dry paper absorbs the liquid in the pigment before the solid pigments adhere to the paper. Paper with too much humidity will expand, causing it to wrinkle on press. This can cause misalignment and a lack or registration in the printing. see also registration

a method for printing ink on paper, using type of images that rise above the surface of the printing plate. Ink sits on top of these raised surfaces, and as the paper is pressed onto them it picks up ink. Letterpress, flexography, and rubber stamps all use relief plates. In letterpress, intense pressure can cause images to be slightly debossed or depressed below the surface of the paper. see also flexography, letterpress, plate, printing methods

Reprographic paper
see office reprographic paper

the ability of paper to return to its original form after being stressed by bending, stretching, or compressing during the printing and finishing processes. see also bonding strength, dimensional stability, runnability, tensile, strength

a generic term referring to the materials used by paper manufac- tures to "size" paper. Rosin, a natural resin from pine trees, is used in the manufacture of acidic paper. Synthetic resins are used in the manufacture of alkaline and acid-free papers. see also acid-free, alkaline papermaking, alum, ingredients of paper, rosin, sizing.

the crispness of detail or fineness of grain in an image. Screen resolution is measured in dots by lines (for example, 640 x 350); printer resolution is measured in dpi (for example, 300 dpi). More pixels means higher resolution. The higher the resolution, the better the printed output.

white or light-colored type of images on a dark background.

This is a command found in many computer applications that returns the document to it's last saved state.

Red, Green, Blue. This is the common color space used on computers. Website graphics are saved as RGB, as well as other output that involves a monitor. Colors are determined by mixing these 3 colors together with values ranging from 0 to 255. Black has an RGB value of R=0, G=0, B=0. A light purple could be a value of is R=180, G=0, B=255.

Rich Media
Typically, a web site or banner ads that use technology more advanced than standard GIF animation. Rich media banners include: Flash, Shockwave, streaming video, Real Audio/Video, pull-down menus, search boxes, applets that allow for interactivity, and other types of special effects.

Right-justified alignment
type set so that the text runs even on the right margin as well as on the left margin; the extra white space is distributed between words and sometimes between characters on the line.

spaces between words that create irregular lines of white space in body type, particularly occurs when the lines of type have been set with excessive word spacing.

Roman type
book weight, regular, or in desktop publishing systems, called plain or normal type -- used for the body type in a text-intensive publication.

the formation created by the dots that make up four-color images. The dots, in magenta (red), cyan (blue), yellow, and black, overlap each other in a cluster. Because the dots are not perfectly round, and because they are turned at angles to each other, this cluster resembles the arrangement of petals in a rose. see also four-color process

a natural resin from pine trees, used to size acidic paper. see also ingredients of paper, resin.

a refined thumbnail sketch for a publication design, done at actual size, with more detail. Roughs are often used for the first client review.

Royalty-Free Photos or Images
Photos, graphic images, or other intellectual property that are sold for a single standard fee and may be used repeatedly by the purchaser. Typically with royalty-free clauses, the company that sells you the images still owns all of the rights to the images, and they are allowed for use only by the purchaser (i.e., the same images cannot be used by another company or individual without repurchase).

Rule (ruling line)
a geometric line used as a graphic enhancement in page assembly -- the term is used to distinguish ruling lines from a line of type.
rule A printed or displayed line used to separate text or graphics.

Rules, or horizontal rules, are HTML tags enable you to insert horizontal lines as separators or dividers. Web graphic designers will vary the length and color of horizontal rules to add emphasis and flair. The following gray line is a horizontal rule set at a width of 50 percent.

A page layout term that refers to the way text can be wrapped around the edges of an image or shape. Sometimes called text wrap.

type that is set to fit the contour of an illustration, photo, ornament or initial.

Run-in heading
a heading set on the same line as the text, usually in bold or italic type.

the ease with which a paper moves through a printing press. For example, offset lithography puts more stress on paper than other printing processes because of: how the paper moves through the press; the great amount of water used in the process; and the tackiness of the inks that are used. In order to have good runnability, paper for offset printing must be strong, have great tear resistance, and possess good dimensional stability. It must also be water resistant and have a strong surface so the paper doesn't pick.
Runnability is also a term for measuring the number of mechanical web breaks per 1,000 rolls of paper run on a press. see also dimensional stability, offset, printability.

Running heads/feet
titles (often accompanied by page numbers) set at the top/bottom of text pages of a multipaged publication.

Saddle Stitch
A book binding process where pages are stapled together through the spine of the book. Tradionally performed on V shaped saddle. Many magazines are saddle stiched or stapled.

Sans Serif
A style of typeface that means "without feet", that has no tails or curled points (serifs) at the ends. Common sans serif typefaces include Arial, Helvetica, AvantGarde and Verdana. The following graphic image shows sans serif typefaces:

The color intensity of an image. An image high in saturation will appear to be very bright. An image low in saturation will appear to be duller and more neutral. An image without any saturation is also referred to as a grayscale image.

reduction or enlargement of artwork, which can be proportional (most frequently) or disproportional. In desktop publishing, optimal scaling of bitmaps is reduction or enlargement that will avoid or reduce moir? patterns.

Scaling Images
Here is one of my favorite ways to scale a photo or graphic for the printer, it is a simple formula that is pretty much foolproof. Using a pica ruler, points, or even inches if you wish but in decimals points only. SIZE TO ________ Divided by: SIZE FROM __________ percent key = ________ (answer) Here is an example: scaling TO 4.5 inches divided FROM 9 inches, percent = 50 percent.

pressing a chanel into a sheet of paper to allow it to fold more easily. Scoring and pressing the paper fibers together creates an emossed channel that does two things: acts as a guide for easi- er folding, and creates a hinge that keeps the fiber stretch short. The score should run parallel to the paper grain; the thicker the paper, the wider the score should be. Paper should be folded with the scored side on the outside, making two short stretches rather than one long one. The outcome is a straight, durable fold that doesn't crack or break. see also finishing, folding, grain

Screen (tint)
in graphic arts, a uniform dotted fill pattern, described in percentage (for example, 50 percent screen).

Screen font
low-resolution (that is, screen resolution) bitmaps of type characters that show the positioning and size of characters on the screen. As opposed to the printer font, which may be high-resolution bitmaps or font outline masters.

Screen Printing
a printing process also called silk screening, where ink is trans- ferred through a porous screen, such as nylon, onto the surface to be decorated. An emulsion or stencil is used to block out the negative, or non-printing areas of the screen. A squeegee forces ink through th eopen areas of the screen and onto the paper, plastic, cardboard, wood, fabric, glass, or other material. see also printing process, stencil.

the lined glass, now called contact film, through which images are photographed to create halftones. Shooting through the mesh of a screen breaks an image into tiny dots. The closer the lines of the screen, the smaller the dots and the more dots per inch; the farther apart the lines of the screen, the bigger the dots and the fewer the dots per inch. The higher the dots per inch, the smaller the dots are, therefore creating a finer, crisper image. The coarseness or fineness of the screen is measured in the number of horizontal and vertical lines per inch. The less a paper absorbs and spreads ink, the finer the screen that can be used. Newspapers use coarse screens with 55 to 85 lines per inch. Most trade publications use 85 to 110 lines. With traditional printing, a coated paper can hold the small dots from a 200-line screen. With waterless printing, the paper can hold the dots from an even finer screen, 400 lines and greater. Though this approaches the quality of continuous tone, it is hard for the eye to discern the differences in resolution above 200 lines per inch. see also absorbency, continuous tone, dot gain, dpi, stochastic.

connected, flowing letters resembling hand writing with pen or quill. Either slanted or upright. Sometimes with a left-hand slant.

long sheets of papyrus, parchment, or paer rolled for storage. see also papyrus, parchment.

Search Engine
A search engines is a program that searches documents (i.e. web pages, which are HTML-documents) for specified keywords and returns the list of documents. A search engine has two parts, a spider and an indexer. The spider is the program that fetches the documents, and the indexer reads the documents and creates an index based on the words or ideas contained in each document.

An area of an image that is selected for editing, leaving the rest of the image protected.

Self Cover a booklet having a cover made of the same paper as the inside or text pages.

Semi-chemical Pulping
using chemicals and mechanical grinding to separate the cellu- lose fibers of wood. Because this pulping process doesn't remove lignin, it isn't generally used for fine printing and writing papers. It's used instead for papers not requiring permanence. see also pulping wood, cellulose fibers, lignin.

These are the exaggerated strokes at the ends of letters. Type that has these markings are known as Serif type. An example of a typeface that has serifs is Times New Roman.

Service Bureau
The facility that provides professional services to graphics and printing professionals especially related to computer output. (i.e. plate ready film, matchprints, colorkeys, etc...)

Set width
in typography, the horizontal width of characters. Typefaces vary in the average horizontal set width of each character (for example, Times has a narrow set width), and set widths of individual characters vary in typeset copy depending on the shape of the character and surrounding characters.

the color depth and hue in comparison to papers that are the same color; also used to describe the color achieved by adding dye to pulp slurry. There is a wide shade variety in white papers, as well as in colored papers.

Press a press that prints single sheets of paper, rather than a continu- ous roll or web of paper. A sheet-fed press prints more slowly than a web press, and is typically used for shorter runs. see also offset, web paper, web press

see imposition

a test used to measure the smoothness of paper by measuring the rate of air flow over the surface of the sheet. The lower the number, the smoother the sheet. see also smooth finish, smoothness "

see opacity

in newsletter/magazine layout, a related story or block of information that is set apart from the main body text, usually boxed and/or screened. "Signature the collated pages of one folded and trimmed form, making up one section of a bound book. see also binding, form, imposition, trimming

Silk Screen see screen printing

a Resin , such as rosin, added to pulp before it's formed into paper, or added to the surface of the paper after it's dry. Sizing acts as a glue to keep the fibers of the finished paper tight, since loose fibers on the surface of the paper can cause printing problems. Sizing also helps the finished paper repel water, which is an especially important property for stock that will be used for offset printing.

a platform built with a solid wood bottom, for holding stacks of paper not packed in cartons. Paper may be ordered in skids or cartons. When printers are printing a large job, they generally prefer skids to cartons.

a thin, watery mixture. The mixture of pulp and water that is poured onton the papermaking machine is often referred to as slurry. see also headbox, hydorpulper, papermaking, wet end.

Small caps
capital letters set at the x-height of the font.

Smooth Finish
paper finished to a Shefield smoothness between 50 and 150. see also finish, Sheffield, smoothness "Smoothness the surface property of paper that desribes its degree of uniform evenness and flatness. When printing, the smoother the paper, the better the ink dot formation and the sharper the image. see also cast-coating, coated paper, Sheffield, smooth finish, super- calendar, uncoated paper

Softwood Pulp
pulp made from coniferous trees (evergreen tress with cones and needles, such as pine and fir trees). Paper is often made using a blend of pulps; softwood pulp has long fibers, giving paper strength; hardwood fibers are short, lending smoothness, bulk, and body. see also hardwood pulp, pulping wood "Solarization: a photographic image in which both blacks and whites appear black, while midtones approach white.

lines of type with no space between the lines (unleaded).

Specifying Paper
choosing the appropriate paper for a specific printing job, in order to meet its individual design, printing, handling, and economic requirements. Designers and printers are frequently assisted by a paper merchant or a paper mill consultant when choosing a paper. see also paper consultant.

A software program that search engines use which visits every site on the web, follows all of the links, and catalogs all of the text of every web page that (a) contains text, and (b) it is able to visit or crawl.

Spot color separation
for offset printing, separation of solid premixed ink colors (for example, green, brown, light blue, etc.); used when the areas to be colored are not adjacent. Spot color separations can be indicated on the tissue cover of the mechanical, or made with overlays.

Spot Color
Single colors applied to printing when process color is not necessary (i.e. one, two and three color printing), or when process colors need to be augmented (i.e. a fluorescent pink headline or a metallic tint).

1) A design that encompasses two or more facing pages (i.e. the center spread in the morning newspaper)

2) Spreading the ink beyond the edge of an object so that there is no gap between it and the next colored object. "Choke and Spread" are common methods of trapping elements of a printing job. "Spread: in a double-sided document, the combination of two facing pages, which are designed as a unit. Also, the adjacent inside panels of a brochure when opened.

Standing elements
in page design, elements that repeat exactly from page to page, not only in terms of style, but also in terms of page position and content. The most commonly used standing elements are page headers or footers, with automatic page numbers.

the amount of space between a clock of text and a graphic, or between two blocks of text that wrap. "Stencil a sheet of plastic, paper, or other material with letters or an image cut out of it. When placed on a surface and inked, it reproduces the cut-away images onto the material behind it. see also printing methods, screen printing

Stochastic (screening)
a relatively new method for creating halftones. Rather than producing the regularly space dots of lined screens, stochastic screening generates randomly placed dots. Because the generation of the dots is frequently modulated, the technique is also called FM screening. Registration on press is slightly more difficult than with lined screens, but the colors rests can be brilliant.

Paper or other material that will be printed. To a paper mill, a "stock item" is a manufactured item that is invertoried, as opposed to a "manufacturing order," which is custom made. see also manufacturing order.

in a typeface, the axis around which the strokes are drawn: oblique (negative or positive) or vertical. Not to be confused with the angle of the strokes themselves (for instance, italics are made with slanted strokes, but may not have oblique stress).

Stroke weight
in a typeface, the amount of contrast between thick and thin strokes. Different typefaces have distinguishing stroke-weight characteristics.

Style Sheet
A method of designating the type faces to be used in a design. i.e. Headlines, captions and body text, this is listed on a "sheet", usually in a "floating pallet" on a program like Pagemaker.

Style sheet
in desktop publishing program, style sheets contain the typographic specifications to be associated with tagged text. They can be used to set up titles, headings, and the attributes of blocks of text, such as lists, tables, and text associated with illustrations. The use of style sheets is a fast and efficient way to insure that all comparable elements are consistent.

a secondary phrase usually following a headline. Display line(s) of lesser size and importance than the main headline(s).

a character slightly smaller than the rest of the font, set below the baseline; used in chemical equations and as base denotation in math, and sometimes as the denominator of fractions.

Subtractive Colors
the three primary process printing colors; magenta, cyan, and yellow, as opposted to the three additive primary colors of green, red, and blue. Color separations are created by shooting or scanning a color through filters of additive colors to generate halftones of subtractive colors. Subtracting the additive color of green from white light leaves magenta; subtracting red leaves cyan; and subtracting blue leaves yellow. The subtractive color halftones are then combined on a printing press to create full- color images.

Alternating steel and fiber-covered calendar rolls that increase a sheet's gloss and smoothness. The supercalender is a separate piece of equipment located close to the dry end of the paper machine.

a character slightly smaller than the rest of the font, set above the baseline, used for footnote markers and sometimes as the numerator of fractions.

a booklet containing paper samples and paper specifications for a line of paper. Champion produces individual swatchbooks for each of its fine printing papers.


Tabloid-sized page:
a page that measures 11" x 17" -- most often used in portrait orientation for newspapers. Not to be confused with an 11" x 17" spread, which is made up of two letter-sized pages.

Tack Stickiness .
Tack is a critical property of the ink used in lithogra- phy. Because the ink sits on a flat surface, it needs internal cohesion; in other words, it needs to stick to itself so that it doesn't run all over the plate. However, too much tack can cause it to pull the paper apart. When printing two or more ink colors in line, the ink tack and sequence must be adjusted in order for the ink to adhere to each other as well as to the paper.

Tag paper
a heavy utility grade of paper used to print tags, such as the store tags on clothing. Tag paper must be strong and durable, yet have good affinity for printing inks.

for style sheets, delimited sets of characters embedded in the text or internally coded. Tags apply to paragraphs (text terminated with a hard return -- this includes titles and headings) and indicate the function of paragraphs. The actual type specification depends on the style sheet that is associated with the tag.

Tear Strength
a measure of how likely a paper will continue to tear once started. Tear strength will be different with and agaist the grain of paper. Paper that will be punched should have good tear strength.

in page design, a file with an associated style sheet and all standing and serial elements in place on a master or base page, used for publication following the same design.

Tensile Strength
a measure of how likely a paper is to break when pulled at opposite ends, in oppostie directions. A web offset paper must have good tensile strength if it is to withstand the high speed of the printing press.

Text Paper
premium uncoated printing paper of fine quality, manufactured in weights suitable for the text of books or brochures. Text papers are made in a wide variety of finishes, including smooth, antique, vellum, laid, felt, and emobossed. They are character- ized by execellent folding qualitys, printablity, and durability. Text papers are used most often for books, annual reports, brochures, booklets, advertising collateral material, and announcements, and have a basic size of 25"x38". see also basic size, book paper, cover paper, offset paper

text wrap
A page layout term that refers to the way text can be wrapped around the edges of an image or shape. Sometimes called runaround.

Text wrap: the spatial relationship between blocks of text and graphics, or between two blocks of text. A text wrap may be rectangular (most commonly), irregular, or arbitrary.

Text-Entry Box
In an online form, text-entry boxes look like the following: Email: If you place your cursor inside the text boxes, you will be able to type information into the online form.

a finishing applied after printing that creates the raised effect of engrved printing. Special inks are used during offset printing; a poweder is applied to the paper; and the paper is passed through a heater.

the thickness of a single piece of paper, as measured in thou- sandths of an inch, called "caliper." Thickness measurements define the bulkiness of a sheet of paper, but the actual number of sheets in an inch-high stack of paper is referred to as PPI, or pages per inch. see also bulk, caliper, ppi

A series of messages related to the same topic in a discussion group or newsgroup, such as an original post and related follow-ups.

A reduced image of a graphic or page, used in order to view several images on a screen at one time. This enables downloading images more quickly.

Tagged Image File Format, a bitmapped file format used for the reproduction of digitally scanned images such as photographs, illustrations & logos.

Tiling (tile):
printing a page layout in sections with overlapping edges so that the pieces can be pasted together.
tint A shade of a color made by adding white to a solid color.

to vary a color by adding white. Also, a very light or delicate variation of a color.

Titanium Dioxide
an exceptionally opaque and expensive compound used as a white pigment and opcifier in papermaking. Elemental titanium is a lustrous, lightweight, white metal with exceptional strength.

in multicolumn publications, when two or more headings in the same horizontal position on the page.

refers to paper's surface roughness, a characteristic that allows it to take up ink.

in four-color process printing, an additional fifth plate of ink that adds more of one color to enhance the image. see also four-color process, subtractive color

a system used for color matching. see also Colorcurve, match color, PANTONE MATCHING SYSTEM

in typography, to reduce space uniformly between all characters in a line. As opposed to kerning, which is the variable reduction of space between specific characters.

Adjusting (increasing or decreasing) the space between type characters in a selected allotment of text.

Traffic Node
A group of information pages on a web site.

transparent GIF
A feature of the GIF89a image file format that lets a designer designate one color in the image's palette as transparent. This enables the background to show through designated parts of an image.

printing ink over previously printed ink. Trapping is also used to describe the very slight overlapping of adjacent colors. Trapping color is achieved by use of chokes and spreads.

Printing one ink over another, preventing gaps or misregistration between two adjacent elements. "
trim marks Marks at the corner of an image pointing out where to trim a printed page. Also called crop marks or corner marks.

Trim Size
the final size of a printed piece once it's been cut to specification.

cutting paper after printing to make all sheets the same or a specified size. After binding printed papers, the head, foot, and edge of a book are often trimmed in a guillotine to make all the papes even. The inner papes of each signature have a tighter fold and will be slightly longer than the outer pages.

a black and white image printed with three screens and three colors, such as one black and two grays, used to enrich the con- trast between light and dark areas. see also continuous tone, duotone, halftone, quadratone, screen

Any two facing pages of a publication where the content traverses the gutter to cover the two center pages of a section. Also known as a double truck or double-page spread.

True Type
A digital font technology developed as alternative to PostScript. One True Type file is used for screen display and printing.

Twin-wire Machine
a paper making machine with two continuous forming wires, rather than just one. Twin-wires were designed to create a less two-sided paper than manufactured on a Fourdrinier paper machine. Other techniques for reducing two-sidedness have since been developed, enabling paper manufactures to created paper on single-wire machines with little side-to-side variation.

the tendency of some papers to have slightly different character- istics and printing results from side-to-side. see also felf side, like-sided, wire side

type A number,
letter or glyph drawn in a huge variety of designs, sizes and weights that belongs to a type family.

Type alignment:
the distribution of white space in a line of type where the characters at their normal set width do not fill the entire line length exactly. Type maybe aligned left, right, centered, or right-justified.

Type families:
a group of typefaces of the same basic design but with different weights and proportions.

the set of characters created by a type designer, including uppercase and lowercase alphabetical characters, numbers, punctuation, and special characters. A single typeface contains many fonts, at different sizes and styles.


abbreviation for upper- and lowercase.

Uncoated Freesheet
uncoated paper containing no more than 10% mechanical wood pulp. Most uncoated freesheet paper is entirely free of mechani- cal wood pulp. Most uncoated printing and writing papers are classified into the broader category of uncoated freesheet. see also mechanical pulp, pupling wood, uncoated paper

Uncoated Groundwood
all paper, that isn't coated, containing more than 10% ground- wood fiber in its furnish. see also furnish, groundwood paper, newsprint paper, uncoated paper

Uncoated Paper
paper that doesn't have coating. Uncoated papers are manu- factured in a great variety of finishes, colors, and weights, and offer the versatility needed to meet the creative and practical demands of most print jobs.

in typography, divisions of the em space, used for fine-tuning the letterspacing of text type. Different typesetting systems and desktop publishing software use different unit divisions: 8, 16, 32, and 64 are common. One unit is a thin space or a hair space.

unsharp mask
A sharpening method that sharpens images without the graininess that appears with most other sharpening methods.

The abbreviation for U niform R esource L ocator. An address that refers to a designated document on the Internet .
"URL URL is the abbreviation for U niform R esource L ocator and is an address referring to a document on the Internet. In other words, it is the address of an individual web page element or web document on the Internet. The syntax of a URL consists of three elements: the protocol , or the communication language, that the URL uses; the domain name , or the exclusive name that identifies a web site; and the path name of the file to be retrieved, usually an HTML document. Most newbies mistakenly believe a URL is the same as a domain name or home page. Every web document and web graphic image on a web site has a URL. For example, the URL for a home page is commonly written as: The http:// is the protocol. The is the domain name. The index.html is the path name. The URL for an About Us page is commonly written as: The http:// is the protocol. The is the domain name. The about.html is the path name.

Abbreviation for U nique S elling P roposition.

UV Coating
a very slick, glossy coating applied to the printed paper sur- face and dried on press with ultraviolet (UV) light. The slick surface of UV coating makes it eye catching, and therefore very popular for printing the covers of paperback novels. Because UV coating can cause slight variations in match colors, con- sulting with an ink manufacturer or printer will yield best results.

UV Ink
ink specially formulated to dry quickly with ultraviolet (UV) light while still on press. UV drying improves turnaround time because it eliminates waiting for the first side to dry before printing the second side. This eliminates the need for the paper to pass through the press more than once.


a coating printed on top of a printed sheet to protect it, add a finish, and/or add a tinge of color. An entire sheet may be varnished, or certain areas, like halftones, may be spot varnished to add emphasis and appeal.

vector graphic
An image stored and displayed in terms of vectors instead of points. A vector image is defined by lines and mathematical calculations (rather than pixels such as in a bitmap ). Images created in vector based programs such as Illustrator or Freehand allow a designer to resize images easily without loss of quality.

Ink and ink using vegetable oil, rather than petroleum solvents, as the vehicle for carrying pigment. Vegetable ink colors tend to be more vibrant than petroleum-based inks, but may take longer to dry. This book, Words on Paper, is printed with soy- based ink, a type of vegetable-based ink. see also ink, petroleum-based ink

an uncoated paper finish that is fairly even, but not quite as even as a smooth finish. Vellum is probably the most popular finish for uncoated paper. see also finish, uncoated paper

a paper type imaging material created by using a large printers camer and exposing the paper to light through a lense. Used for camera ready logos, half tones.Virgin fiber fiber that has never been used before in the manufacture of paper or other products.

in a double-sided document, the page that appears on the left side of the spread; an odd-numbered page.

A series of framed images put together, one after another, to simulate motion and interactivity. A video can be transmitted by number of frames per second and/or the amount of time between switching frames. The difference between video and animation is that video is broken down into individual frames .

An image that lacks a defined border. A photo or illustration in which the tones gradually fade away until blending with the background.


see deinking

Waterless Printing
a printing process that runs on offset lithography presses, but without using water. The non-image areas of the plate are coated with silicone, allowing the ink to run off freely into shallow wells, in the plate. Because finer dots can be used in waterless printing, the image is very detailed. The cost for this printing process is high, but the results can be magnificent.

A semi-transparent design imprinted on paper during manufacturing that is evident when the paper is held up to light. Also a method of encoding a digital image with information to discourage unauthorized use.

a roll of paper. see also web paper

Web Break
a tear through a roll of paper, either while it is being manufac- tured at the mill, or while it is running through a printing press. When the web breaks, either at the mill or on press, machinery must be shut down, causing a loss of production time. see also papermaking, web paper, web press

Web Paper
paper that comes in a roll rather than in sheets. A web press runs this paper, folding and/or cutting it after it is printed. web press a press specifically designed to print rolls of paper called webs, rather than sheets. A web press runs much faster than a sheet- feb press: as many as 40,000 images per hour versus a maxi- mum of about 14,000 per hour on a sheet-feb press.

Web Press
A high speed printing press that prints on both sides of a continuous roll of paper. Web presses are used for high volume printing such as newspapers and magazines.

Web Site
A web site is a collection of electronic pages generally formatted in HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) that can contain text, graphic images, and multimedia effects such as sound files, video and/or animation files, and other programming elements such as Java and JavaScript .

Light, medium, bold (in reference to type).

the tonnage or poundage of a quantity of paper. The weight of paper may be expressed as basis weight, ream weight, M weight, or grammage. Basis weight is the weight in pounds of 500 sheets of paper cut to a given standard size (called basic size), such as 25"x38", depending on the grade of paper. Ream weight is the actual weight in pounds of 500 sheets of paper, regardless of basic size of grade. M weight is the actual weight of 1,000 sheets of paper. Because this is twice the quantity of a ream of paper, it is also twice the ream weight. Grammage is a metric measure similar to the basis weight of paper. Unlike basis weight, which uses different basic sizes for different grades of paper, grammage always uses the same sheet size - one square meter - regardless of the paper grade.

Wet End
the front end of the papermaking machine, including the head- box, wire, and presses. Papaer is more water than fiber in this section of the machine.

Wet Trap
Printing a layer of wet ink over, or adjacent to, a previous layer of wet ink.

"White space
in designing publication, the areas where there is no text or graphics -- essentially, the negative space of the page design.

the measure of the amount of light reflected from a sheet of paper. How white a paper is depends on how evenly it reflects all colors in the visible spectrum. If it reflects more blue than red and yellow, it will have a cool, blue tinge to it, making it appear brighter than white. A cool paper will appear brighter than a similar paper with a warm tinge. A cool or warm tinge doesn't affect paper quality, but it does create optical impressions. For example, in color printing with blues and blacks predominating, a cool white sheet tends to brighten the colors. But color printing with reds, oranges, and yellows predominating, a neutral or warm white sheet tends to make the colors apprear clearer and stronger.

in a page layout, short last lines of paragraphs -- usually unacceptable when separated from the rest of the paragraph by a column break, and always unacceptable when separated by a page break.

Wire Side
the bottom side of the paper that comes in contact with the wire (now called the forming fabric) of the paper machine during the papermaking process. The top side of the paper is called the felt side. As the water drains through the wire during manufacture, it carries fibers, fillers, and other chemicals with it, depositing more of them on the wire side than on the felt side of the paper. This can result in the wire and felt sides having slightly different textures.

Word wrap:
in a word processor or text editor, the automatic dropping of characters to the next line when the right margin is reached.

Work and Back see imposition

Work and Tumble see imposition

ork and Turn see imposition

Wove Finish
uncoated paper that has an even finish with slight toothiness.

The abbreviation for the World Wide Web. It is the entire collection of web servers all over the world that are connected to the www.

WYSIWYG (What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get):
an interactive mode of computer processing, in which there is a screen representation of the printed output. WYSIWYG is never entirely accurate, because of the difference in resolution between display screens and printers.


x, y coordinates
The point at which data is located on a two-dimensional coordinate system.

The horizontal axis of a two-dimensional coordinate system. In Graphic Design, a horizontal line on a graph or grid used to show the position of a point. Can also be one of three axes in a three-dimensional coordinate system (x, y, z coordinates).

This is the vertical height of a typeface that is measured from the baseline to the top of lowercase letters without ascenders. X is a letter that can be measured this way (hence the name), as well as a, c, e, m, n, s, and so on.

Abbreviation for E xtensible H yper t ext M ark-up L anguage and is a hybrid of XML and HTML. Web pages designed in XHTML should look the same across all platforms.

Abbreviation for E xtensible M ark-up L anguage.

The vertical axis of a two-dimensional coordinate system. In Graphic Design, a vertical line on a graph or grid used to show the position of a point.

zero point
In an application, the origin of horizontal and vertical axes or rulers.

Also known as a Zip Disk . A portable storage disk created by Iomega, used in a removable storage device called a Zip Drive .

In an application, a tool or feature that enables you to enlarge a portion of an image or document.